Celiac disease autoantibodies in severe autoimmune liver disease and the effect of liver transplantation

Alberto Rubio-Tapia, Ahmad S. Abdulkarim, Russell H. Wiesner, S. Breanndan Moore, Patricia K. Krause, Joseph A. Murray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background/aims: Celiac disease (CD) is associated with primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis and autoimmune hepatitis. We investigated the following: (i) the prevalence of tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTGAs) and endomysial antibodies (EMAs) in end-stage autoimmune liver disease (ESALD), (ii) the correlation among auto-antibodies and the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype, and (iii) the effect of liver transplantation on antibody kinetics. Methods: Pretransplantation sera from 488 patients (310 with ESALD, and 178 with non-autoimmune disease) were tested for tTGAs. Positive samples were also tested for EMAs, and retested 6-12 and ≥24 months post-transplantation. Results were correlated with the HLA type of the recipient. Results: Serological evidence of CD was found in 3% (ESALD) vs. 0.6% (non-autoimmune) of the patients (five-fold increased risk in ESALD). The prevalence of tTGAs (14.2 vs. 5.4%, P = 0.0001) and EMAs (4.3 vs. 0.78%, P = 0.01) was significantly higher in patients with the HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 haplotypes. tTGAs and EMAs normalized in 94 and 100%, respectively, without gluten exclusion post-transplantation. Post-transplantation, of the five patients with symptoms of 'classical' CD, three improved. Intestinal lymphoma was diagnosed in another two cases with clinically 'silent' CD. Conclusions: Patients with ESALD, especially those who are HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 positive had a high prevalence of CD-associated antibodies. Both tTGAs and EMAs decreased post-transplantation without gluten withdrawal. Immunosuppression may improve symptoms of CD, but might not prevent progression to intestinal lymphoma.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)467-476
Number of pages10
JournalLiver International
Volume28
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2008

Keywords

  • Autoimmune hepatitis
  • Primary biliary cirrhosis
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis
  • Serology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology

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