Carciovascular complications are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Pkd2+/- vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) have an abnormal phenotype and defective intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) regulation. We examined cAMP content in vascular smooth muscles from Pkd2+/- mice because cAMP is elevated in cystic renal epithelial cells. We found cAMP concentration was significantly increased in Pkd2+/- vessels compared with wild-type vessels. Furthermore, reducing the wild-type VSMC [Ca 2+]i by Verapamil or BAPTA-AM significantly increased cellular cAMP concentration (mainly by phosphodiesterase [PDE] inhibition), the rate of VSMC proliferation (determined by direct cell counting, 3H-incorporation, FACS analysis of cells entering S phase, and quantitative Western PCNA and ERK1/2 analyses), and the rate of apoptosis (by Hoechst staining, FACS analysis of the Annexin-V positive cells, and quantitative Western Bax, cytochrome c, and activated caspase 9 and 3 analyses). The low [Ca2+]i induced VSMC proliferation was independent of cAMP/B-Raf signaling, while that of apoptosis was promoted by cAMP. In summary, Pkd2+/- VSMCs have elevated cAMP levels. This elevation can also be induced by reducing [Ca2+]i in wild-type VSMCs. The [Ca2+]i reduction and cAMP accumulation can cause an increase in both cellular proliferation and apoptosis, resembling Pkd mutant phenotype.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||8|
|State||Published - Apr 29 2005|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine