Case-parents design for gene-environment interaction

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

81 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The scientific and public health implications of gene-environment interaction warrant that the most powerful study designs and methods of analysis be used. Because traditional case-control designs, which use nonrelated subjects, have demonstrated the need for large samples to detect interactions, alternative study designs may be worthwhile, such as sampling diseased cases and their parents. If the transmission of particular alleles from parents to their diseased child appears to be distorted from Mendelian expectation, then this suggests an etiologic association of the alleles with disease; if the frequency of transmission differs between exposed and nonexposed cases, then gene-environment interaction is suggested. We present likelihood-based methods to assess interaction, as well as an extension of the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT). For these statistical tests, we also derive methods to compute sample size and power. Comparisons of sample size requirements between the case-parents design and the case-control design indicate that the case-parents design can be more powerful to detect gene- environment interactions, particularly when the disease susceptible allele is rare. Also, one of the derived likelihood methods, based on additive effects of alleles, tended to be the most robust in terms of power for a broad range of genetic mechanisms, and so may be useful for broad applications to assess gene-environment interactions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)261-273
Number of pages13
JournalGenetic Epidemiology
Volume16
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 1999

Fingerprint

Gene-Environment Interaction
Parents
Alleles
Sample Size
Public Health
Power (Psychology)

Keywords

  • Association
  • Conditional logistic regression
  • Genotype relative risk
  • Likelihood
  • Transmission disequilibrium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Genetics(clinical)

Cite this

Case-parents design for gene-environment interaction. / Schaid, Daniel J.

In: Genetic Epidemiology, Vol. 16, No. 3, 1999, p. 261-273.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{6718bb2f2c71460580d5c092ac93cc6c,
title = "Case-parents design for gene-environment interaction",
abstract = "The scientific and public health implications of gene-environment interaction warrant that the most powerful study designs and methods of analysis be used. Because traditional case-control designs, which use nonrelated subjects, have demonstrated the need for large samples to detect interactions, alternative study designs may be worthwhile, such as sampling diseased cases and their parents. If the transmission of particular alleles from parents to their diseased child appears to be distorted from Mendelian expectation, then this suggests an etiologic association of the alleles with disease; if the frequency of transmission differs between exposed and nonexposed cases, then gene-environment interaction is suggested. We present likelihood-based methods to assess interaction, as well as an extension of the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT). For these statistical tests, we also derive methods to compute sample size and power. Comparisons of sample size requirements between the case-parents design and the case-control design indicate that the case-parents design can be more powerful to detect gene- environment interactions, particularly when the disease susceptible allele is rare. Also, one of the derived likelihood methods, based on additive effects of alleles, tended to be the most robust in terms of power for a broad range of genetic mechanisms, and so may be useful for broad applications to assess gene-environment interactions.",
keywords = "Association, Conditional logistic regression, Genotype relative risk, Likelihood, Transmission disequilibrium",
author = "Schaid, {Daniel J}",
year = "1999",
doi = "10.1002/(SICI)1098-2272(1999)16:3<261::AID-GEPI3>3.0.CO;2-M",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "16",
pages = "261--273",
journal = "Genetic Epidemiology",
issn = "0741-0395",
publisher = "Wiley-Liss Inc.",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Case-parents design for gene-environment interaction

AU - Schaid, Daniel J

PY - 1999

Y1 - 1999

N2 - The scientific and public health implications of gene-environment interaction warrant that the most powerful study designs and methods of analysis be used. Because traditional case-control designs, which use nonrelated subjects, have demonstrated the need for large samples to detect interactions, alternative study designs may be worthwhile, such as sampling diseased cases and their parents. If the transmission of particular alleles from parents to their diseased child appears to be distorted from Mendelian expectation, then this suggests an etiologic association of the alleles with disease; if the frequency of transmission differs between exposed and nonexposed cases, then gene-environment interaction is suggested. We present likelihood-based methods to assess interaction, as well as an extension of the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT). For these statistical tests, we also derive methods to compute sample size and power. Comparisons of sample size requirements between the case-parents design and the case-control design indicate that the case-parents design can be more powerful to detect gene- environment interactions, particularly when the disease susceptible allele is rare. Also, one of the derived likelihood methods, based on additive effects of alleles, tended to be the most robust in terms of power for a broad range of genetic mechanisms, and so may be useful for broad applications to assess gene-environment interactions.

AB - The scientific and public health implications of gene-environment interaction warrant that the most powerful study designs and methods of analysis be used. Because traditional case-control designs, which use nonrelated subjects, have demonstrated the need for large samples to detect interactions, alternative study designs may be worthwhile, such as sampling diseased cases and their parents. If the transmission of particular alleles from parents to their diseased child appears to be distorted from Mendelian expectation, then this suggests an etiologic association of the alleles with disease; if the frequency of transmission differs between exposed and nonexposed cases, then gene-environment interaction is suggested. We present likelihood-based methods to assess interaction, as well as an extension of the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT). For these statistical tests, we also derive methods to compute sample size and power. Comparisons of sample size requirements between the case-parents design and the case-control design indicate that the case-parents design can be more powerful to detect gene- environment interactions, particularly when the disease susceptible allele is rare. Also, one of the derived likelihood methods, based on additive effects of alleles, tended to be the most robust in terms of power for a broad range of genetic mechanisms, and so may be useful for broad applications to assess gene-environment interactions.

KW - Association

KW - Conditional logistic regression

KW - Genotype relative risk

KW - Likelihood

KW - Transmission disequilibrium

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0033046371&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0033046371&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2272(1999)16:3<261::AID-GEPI3>3.0.CO;2-M

DO - 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2272(1999)16:3<261::AID-GEPI3>3.0.CO;2-M

M3 - Article

C2 - 10096689

AN - SCOPUS:0033046371

VL - 16

SP - 261

EP - 273

JO - Genetic Epidemiology

JF - Genetic Epidemiology

SN - 0741-0395

IS - 3

ER -