Cardiovascular disease in women: Clinical perspectives

Mariana Garcia, Sharon L. Mulvagh, C. Noel Bairey Merz, Julie E. Buring, Jo Ann E. Manson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

306 Scopus citations


Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death among women in the United States, accounting for ≈1 of every 3 female deaths. Sex-specific data focused on cardiovascular disease have been increasing steadily, yet is not routinely collected nor translated into practice. This comprehensive review focuses on novel and unique aspects of cardiovascular health in women and sex differences as they relate to clinical practice in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiovascular disease. This review also provides current approaches to the evaluation and treatment of acute coronary syndromes that are more prevalent in women, including myocardial infarction associated with nonobstructive coronary arteries, spontaneous coronary artery dissection, and stress-induced cardiomyopathy (Takotsubo Syndrome). Other cardiovascular disease entities with higher prevalence or unique considerations in women, such as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, peripheral arterial disease, and abdominal aortic aneurysms, are also briefly reviewed. Finally, recommendations for cardiac rehabilitation are addressed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1273-1293
Number of pages21
JournalCirculation research
Issue number8
StatePublished - Apr 15 2016


  • acute coronary syndromes
  • cardiovascular disease
  • primary prevention
  • risk factors
  • women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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