Cardiopulmonary exercise test in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Hao Cui, Hartzell V. Schaff, Thomas P. Olson, Jeffrey B. Geske, Joseph Dearani, Rick A. Nishimura, Daokun Sun, Steve R. Ommen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: The study objective was to analyze performance on cardiopulmonary exercise testing and its prognostic value in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy undergoing septal myectomy. Methods: We reviewed patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who had cardiopulmonary exercise testing before septal myectomy from 2005 to 2016. Causes of functional impairment and their impact on survival were analyzed. Results: A total of 752 patients had cardiopulmonary exercise testing at a median of 16 days (interquartile range, 2-56) before myectomy. The median exercise time was 6.6 (5.3-8.0) minutes. Functional aerobic capacity was 64% (53%-75%) of predicted, and metabolic equivalent of task was 5.2 (4.1-6.4). The peak oxygen consumption was 18.0 (14.2-21.9) mL/kg/min, which was 60% (49%-72%) of the predicted value. The primary causes for low peak oxygen consumption were impaired cardiac output (73.7%), limited heart rate reserve (52.0%), and obesity (48.2%). Resting outflow tract gradient correlated poorly to peak oxygen consumption, but the use of beta-blockers was associated with reduced peak oxygen consumption. During a median (interquartile range) of 9.0 (6.8-11.7) years of follow-up, the estimated 5- and 10-year survivals were 97% and 91%, respectively. Greater adjusted peak oxygen consumption (hazard ratio, 0.98; P = .011) and abnormal pulse oxygen increase (hazard ratio, 0.44; P = .003) were independently associated with better long-term survival after myectomy. Conclusions: Among patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy undergoing septal myectomy, functional capacity is severely impaired despite receiving optimal medical treatment. We identified risk factors of reduced long-term survival from preoperative cardiopulmonary exercise testing that may aid risk stratification in patients undergoing septal myectomy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
StateAccepted/In press - 2022


  • cardiopulmonary exercise testing
  • hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
  • septal myectomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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