Historically efforts have focused on the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) as the major cause for acute and chronic rejection following cardiac transplantation. However, rising evidence indicates that non-HLA antibodies can be both primary initiators and modifiers of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV). The purpose of this review is to assess currently available technologies for non-HLA identification and leveraging such responses toward antibody quantification. Several techniques have been used to identify antigenic determinants of recipient graft-specific non-HLA humoral immune responses, but each comes with its own set of benefits and caveats. Improving our ability to detect non-HLA humoral immune response will aid in our understanding of the underlying antigenic determinants of AMR and CAV, as well as improve patient outcomes.
- Antigen identification
- Heart transplantation
- Non-human leukocyte antigen antibody
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy