Carboplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy versus observation after radical cystectomy in patients with pN1-3 urothelial bladder cancer

the European Association of Urology-Young Academic Urologists (EAU-YAU), Urothelial Carcinoma Working Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: To test the impact of carboplatin-based ACT on overall survival (OS) in patients with pN1-3 cM0 BCa. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 1057 patients with pTany pN1-3 cM0 urothelial BCa treated with or without carboplatin-based ACT after radical cystectomy and bilateral lymph-node dissection between 2002 and 2018 at 12 European and North-American hospitals. No patient received neoadjuvant chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Only patients with negative surgical margins at surgery were included. A 3:1 propensity score matching (PSM) was performed using logistic regression to adjust for baseline characteristics. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses were used to predict the effect of carboplatin-based ACT on OS. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to display OS in the matched cohort. Results: Of the 1057 patients included in the study, 69 (6.5%) received carboplatin-based ACT. After PSM, 244 total patients were identified in two cohorts that did not differ for baseline characteristics. Death was recorded in 114 (46.7%) patients over a median follow-up of 19 months. In the multivariable Cox regression analyses, increasing age at surgery (hazard ratio [HR] 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.06, p < 0.001) and increasing number of positive lymph nodes (HR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01–1.07, p = 0.02) were independent predictors of worse OS. The delivery of carboplatin-based ACT was not predictive of improved OS (HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.43–1.04, p = 0.08). The main limitations of this study are its retrospective design and the relatively low number of patients involved. Conclusions: Carboplatin-based might not improve OS in patients with pN1-3 cM0 BCa. Our results underline the need for alternative therapies for cisplatin-ineligible patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalWorld Journal of Urology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

Keywords

  • Adjuvant chemotherapy
  • Bladder cancer
  • Carboplatin
  • Nodal metastasis
  • Radical cystectomy
  • Urothelial cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

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