Carbon nanofiber multiplexed array and wireless instantaneous neurotransmitter concentration sensor for simultaneous detection of dissolved oxygen and dopamine

Michael P. Marsh, Jessica E. Koehne, Russell J. Andrews, M. Meyyappan, Kevin E. Bennet, Kendall H. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose: While the mechanism of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) remains poorly understood, previous studies have shown that it evokes release of neurochemicals and induces activation of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygen level-dependent signal in distinct areas of the brain. Therefore, the main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the capabilities of the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensor system (WINCS) in conjunction with a carbon nanofiber (CNF) multiplexed array electrode as a powerful tool for elucidating the mechanism of DBS through the simultaneous detection of multiple bioactivemolecules. Methods: Patterned CNF nanoelectrode arrays were prepared on a 4-inch silicon wafer where each device consists of 3 × 3 electrode pads, 200 μm square, that contain CNFs spaced at 1 μm intervals. The multiplexed carbon nanofiber CNF electrodes were integrated with WINCS to detect mixtures of dopamine (DA) and oxygen (O2) using fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in vitro. Results: First, simultaneous detection of O2 at two spatially different locations, 200 um apart, was demonstrated. Second, simultaneous detection of both O2 and DA at two spatially different locations, using two different decoupled waveforms was demonstrated. Third, controlled studies demonstrated that the waveform must be interleaved to avoid electrode crosstalk artifacts in the acquired data. Conclusions: Multiplexed CNF nanoelectrode arrays for electrochemical detection of neurotransmitters show promise for the detection of multiple analytes with the application of time independent decoupled waveforms. Electrochemistry on CNF electrodes may be helpful in elucidating the mechanism of DBS, and may also provide the precision and sensitivity required for future applications in feedback modulated DBS neural control systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)271-277
Number of pages7
JournalBiomedical Engineering Letters
Volume2
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2012

Keywords

  • Carbon nanofibers
  • DBS
  • Electrochemistry
  • Fast scan cyclic-voltammetry
  • Multiplexed array electrode

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering

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