Cancer mortality among Iowa farmers: Recent results, time trends, and lifestyle factors (United States)

James R Cerhan, Kenneth P. Cantor, Kimberly Williamson, Charles F. Lynch, James C. Torner, Leon F. Burmeister

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

96 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives: To update the cancer mortality patterns among Iowa (United States) farmers for the years 1987-93 and compare these results with those previously reported for 1971-86 as well as relate the PMR patterns to risk-factor survey data. Methods: We extracted usual occupation and cause of death from 88,090 Iowa death certificates for White males aged 20 and older for the years 1987-93. Proportional mortality ratios (PMR), adjusted for age, and 95 percent confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using deaths among nonfarmers to generate expected numbers. We compared lifestyle profiles for farmers and nonfarmers using male controls (n = 1,596) from a population-based case-control study conducted in Iowa from 1986-89. Results: Iowa farmers had deficit PMRs for all-cause cancer mortality (PMR = 0.92, CI = 0.90-0.94) and for lung (PMR = 0.70, CI = 0.66-0.73), liver (PMR = 0.65, CI = 0.50-0.86), and other cancer sites strongly related to smoking and alcohol use. Farmers at all ages had excess deaths for cancers of the prostate (PMR = 1.26, CI = 1.19-1.33), rectum (PMR = 1.29, CI = 1.07-1.56), brain (PMR = 1.10, CI = 0.92-1.32), multiple myeloma (PMR = 1.17, CI = 0.98-1.40), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (PMR = 1.09, CI = 0.96-1.23), and Hodgkin's disease (PMR = 1.62, CI = 1.04-2.54). Younger farmers (aged 20 to 64 years) had excess deaths for colon cancer (PMR = 1.52, CI = 1.26-1.85) and skin melanoma (PMR = 1.60, CI = 1.07-2.38), while older farmers (aged 65+ years) had excess deaths for cancers of the pancreas (PMR = 1.18, CI = 1.04-1.34), lip (PMR = 1.58, CI = 0.59-4.21), and leukemia (PMR = 1.26, CI = 1.09-1.46). Since the 1970s, the PMR for stomach cancer has declined to expected values, while the PMRs for prostate, large intestine, pancreas, and Hodgkin's disease have increased; PMRs for other sites are consistent with earlier data. A survey from 1986-89 showed that farmers, compared with nonfarmers, smoked less, used less alcohol, had less formal education, and consumed more total calories, and calories from protein, fat, and meat while consuming fewer calories from fruits and vegetables. Conclusions: Iowa farmers continue to be at elevated risk of mortality due to certain cancers, and, of particular interest, the risk for prostate and colon cancer appears to be increasing since 1970.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)311-319
Number of pages9
JournalCancer Causes and Control
Volume9
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 1998
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Life Style
Mortality
Confidence Intervals
Neoplasms
Farmers
Hodgkin Disease
Colonic Neoplasms
Prostatic Neoplasms
Alcohols
Death Certificates
Large Intestine
Lip
Multiple Myeloma
Pancreatic Neoplasms
Occupations
Rectum
Vegetables
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Meat
Stomach Neoplasms

Keywords

  • Cancer motility
  • Farming
  • Lifestyle
  • Men
  • United States

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Epidemiology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Cancer mortality among Iowa farmers : Recent results, time trends, and lifestyle factors (United States). / Cerhan, James R; Cantor, Kenneth P.; Williamson, Kimberly; Lynch, Charles F.; Torner, James C.; Burmeister, Leon F.

In: Cancer Causes and Control, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1998, p. 311-319.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cerhan, James R ; Cantor, Kenneth P. ; Williamson, Kimberly ; Lynch, Charles F. ; Torner, James C. ; Burmeister, Leon F. / Cancer mortality among Iowa farmers : Recent results, time trends, and lifestyle factors (United States). In: Cancer Causes and Control. 1998 ; Vol. 9, No. 3. pp. 311-319.
@article{ba896108bfa341aba3743ee6d39ef1f2,
title = "Cancer mortality among Iowa farmers: Recent results, time trends, and lifestyle factors (United States)",
abstract = "Objectives: To update the cancer mortality patterns among Iowa (United States) farmers for the years 1987-93 and compare these results with those previously reported for 1971-86 as well as relate the PMR patterns to risk-factor survey data. Methods: We extracted usual occupation and cause of death from 88,090 Iowa death certificates for White males aged 20 and older for the years 1987-93. Proportional mortality ratios (PMR), adjusted for age, and 95 percent confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using deaths among nonfarmers to generate expected numbers. We compared lifestyle profiles for farmers and nonfarmers using male controls (n = 1,596) from a population-based case-control study conducted in Iowa from 1986-89. Results: Iowa farmers had deficit PMRs for all-cause cancer mortality (PMR = 0.92, CI = 0.90-0.94) and for lung (PMR = 0.70, CI = 0.66-0.73), liver (PMR = 0.65, CI = 0.50-0.86), and other cancer sites strongly related to smoking and alcohol use. Farmers at all ages had excess deaths for cancers of the prostate (PMR = 1.26, CI = 1.19-1.33), rectum (PMR = 1.29, CI = 1.07-1.56), brain (PMR = 1.10, CI = 0.92-1.32), multiple myeloma (PMR = 1.17, CI = 0.98-1.40), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (PMR = 1.09, CI = 0.96-1.23), and Hodgkin's disease (PMR = 1.62, CI = 1.04-2.54). Younger farmers (aged 20 to 64 years) had excess deaths for colon cancer (PMR = 1.52, CI = 1.26-1.85) and skin melanoma (PMR = 1.60, CI = 1.07-2.38), while older farmers (aged 65+ years) had excess deaths for cancers of the pancreas (PMR = 1.18, CI = 1.04-1.34), lip (PMR = 1.58, CI = 0.59-4.21), and leukemia (PMR = 1.26, CI = 1.09-1.46). Since the 1970s, the PMR for stomach cancer has declined to expected values, while the PMRs for prostate, large intestine, pancreas, and Hodgkin's disease have increased; PMRs for other sites are consistent with earlier data. A survey from 1986-89 showed that farmers, compared with nonfarmers, smoked less, used less alcohol, had less formal education, and consumed more total calories, and calories from protein, fat, and meat while consuming fewer calories from fruits and vegetables. Conclusions: Iowa farmers continue to be at elevated risk of mortality due to certain cancers, and, of particular interest, the risk for prostate and colon cancer appears to be increasing since 1970.",
keywords = "Cancer motility, Farming, Lifestyle, Men, United States",
author = "Cerhan, {James R} and Cantor, {Kenneth P.} and Kimberly Williamson and Lynch, {Charles F.} and Torner, {James C.} and Burmeister, {Leon F.}",
year = "1998",
doi = "10.1023/A:1008877204830",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "9",
pages = "311--319",
journal = "Cancer Causes and Control",
issn = "0957-5243",
publisher = "Springer Netherlands",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cancer mortality among Iowa farmers

T2 - Recent results, time trends, and lifestyle factors (United States)

AU - Cerhan, James R

AU - Cantor, Kenneth P.

AU - Williamson, Kimberly

AU - Lynch, Charles F.

AU - Torner, James C.

AU - Burmeister, Leon F.

PY - 1998

Y1 - 1998

N2 - Objectives: To update the cancer mortality patterns among Iowa (United States) farmers for the years 1987-93 and compare these results with those previously reported for 1971-86 as well as relate the PMR patterns to risk-factor survey data. Methods: We extracted usual occupation and cause of death from 88,090 Iowa death certificates for White males aged 20 and older for the years 1987-93. Proportional mortality ratios (PMR), adjusted for age, and 95 percent confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using deaths among nonfarmers to generate expected numbers. We compared lifestyle profiles for farmers and nonfarmers using male controls (n = 1,596) from a population-based case-control study conducted in Iowa from 1986-89. Results: Iowa farmers had deficit PMRs for all-cause cancer mortality (PMR = 0.92, CI = 0.90-0.94) and for lung (PMR = 0.70, CI = 0.66-0.73), liver (PMR = 0.65, CI = 0.50-0.86), and other cancer sites strongly related to smoking and alcohol use. Farmers at all ages had excess deaths for cancers of the prostate (PMR = 1.26, CI = 1.19-1.33), rectum (PMR = 1.29, CI = 1.07-1.56), brain (PMR = 1.10, CI = 0.92-1.32), multiple myeloma (PMR = 1.17, CI = 0.98-1.40), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (PMR = 1.09, CI = 0.96-1.23), and Hodgkin's disease (PMR = 1.62, CI = 1.04-2.54). Younger farmers (aged 20 to 64 years) had excess deaths for colon cancer (PMR = 1.52, CI = 1.26-1.85) and skin melanoma (PMR = 1.60, CI = 1.07-2.38), while older farmers (aged 65+ years) had excess deaths for cancers of the pancreas (PMR = 1.18, CI = 1.04-1.34), lip (PMR = 1.58, CI = 0.59-4.21), and leukemia (PMR = 1.26, CI = 1.09-1.46). Since the 1970s, the PMR for stomach cancer has declined to expected values, while the PMRs for prostate, large intestine, pancreas, and Hodgkin's disease have increased; PMRs for other sites are consistent with earlier data. A survey from 1986-89 showed that farmers, compared with nonfarmers, smoked less, used less alcohol, had less formal education, and consumed more total calories, and calories from protein, fat, and meat while consuming fewer calories from fruits and vegetables. Conclusions: Iowa farmers continue to be at elevated risk of mortality due to certain cancers, and, of particular interest, the risk for prostate and colon cancer appears to be increasing since 1970.

AB - Objectives: To update the cancer mortality patterns among Iowa (United States) farmers for the years 1987-93 and compare these results with those previously reported for 1971-86 as well as relate the PMR patterns to risk-factor survey data. Methods: We extracted usual occupation and cause of death from 88,090 Iowa death certificates for White males aged 20 and older for the years 1987-93. Proportional mortality ratios (PMR), adjusted for age, and 95 percent confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using deaths among nonfarmers to generate expected numbers. We compared lifestyle profiles for farmers and nonfarmers using male controls (n = 1,596) from a population-based case-control study conducted in Iowa from 1986-89. Results: Iowa farmers had deficit PMRs for all-cause cancer mortality (PMR = 0.92, CI = 0.90-0.94) and for lung (PMR = 0.70, CI = 0.66-0.73), liver (PMR = 0.65, CI = 0.50-0.86), and other cancer sites strongly related to smoking and alcohol use. Farmers at all ages had excess deaths for cancers of the prostate (PMR = 1.26, CI = 1.19-1.33), rectum (PMR = 1.29, CI = 1.07-1.56), brain (PMR = 1.10, CI = 0.92-1.32), multiple myeloma (PMR = 1.17, CI = 0.98-1.40), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (PMR = 1.09, CI = 0.96-1.23), and Hodgkin's disease (PMR = 1.62, CI = 1.04-2.54). Younger farmers (aged 20 to 64 years) had excess deaths for colon cancer (PMR = 1.52, CI = 1.26-1.85) and skin melanoma (PMR = 1.60, CI = 1.07-2.38), while older farmers (aged 65+ years) had excess deaths for cancers of the pancreas (PMR = 1.18, CI = 1.04-1.34), lip (PMR = 1.58, CI = 0.59-4.21), and leukemia (PMR = 1.26, CI = 1.09-1.46). Since the 1970s, the PMR for stomach cancer has declined to expected values, while the PMRs for prostate, large intestine, pancreas, and Hodgkin's disease have increased; PMRs for other sites are consistent with earlier data. A survey from 1986-89 showed that farmers, compared with nonfarmers, smoked less, used less alcohol, had less formal education, and consumed more total calories, and calories from protein, fat, and meat while consuming fewer calories from fruits and vegetables. Conclusions: Iowa farmers continue to be at elevated risk of mortality due to certain cancers, and, of particular interest, the risk for prostate and colon cancer appears to be increasing since 1970.

KW - Cancer motility

KW - Farming

KW - Lifestyle

KW - Men

KW - United States

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0031819989&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0031819989&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1023/A:1008877204830

DO - 10.1023/A:1008877204830

M3 - Article

C2 - 9684711

AN - SCOPUS:0031819989

VL - 9

SP - 311

EP - 319

JO - Cancer Causes and Control

JF - Cancer Causes and Control

SN - 0957-5243

IS - 3

ER -