Hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R) generate oxygen free radicals that result in renal cell injury. We tested the roles of calcium and calmodulin in mediating xanthine oxidase-derived oxygen free radical production during H/R. Lowering extracellular Ca2+ attenuated lethal cell injury. H/R increased superoxide radical production over basal levels, whereas removing extracellular Ca2+ before hypoxia decreased superoxide radical production to basal levels. Pretreatment with either 8-(N,N-diethylamino)octyl-3,4,5- tri-methoxybenzoate hydrochloride or thapsigargin, to inhibit release or deplete stores of intracellular Ca2+, did not affect injury following H/R. Ionomycin increased lactate dehydrogenase release during H/R but did not increase superoxide radical to levels greater than that observed for H/R alone. The calmodulin inhibitors trifluoperazine, calmidazolium, or N-(6- aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide decreased cell injury to varying degrees. Trifluoperazine also decreased superoxide radical production during H/R and was shown to inhibit the conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase to xanthine oxidase. Cell injury and superoxide radical production correlated with cytosolic free Ca2+ during H/R as determined with the Ca2+-sensitive fluoroprobe indo 1. Cytosolic free Ca2+ increased slightly during hypoxia and showed a dramatic increase as soon as cells were reoxygenated. Cells incubated in a Ca2+-free medium actually showed a small decrease in intracellular Ca2+ despite H/R. In summary, Ca2+ derived from extracellular sources promoted superoxide radical production and renal cell injury by a calmodulin-dependent conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase to xanthine oxidase, a major source of oxygen free radicals during H/R.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||American Journal of Physiology - Renal Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology|
|Issue number||1 35-1|
|State||Published - 1994|
- oxygen free radical
- xanthine oxidase
ASJC Scopus subject areas