Background: Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a disorder characterized by chronic mouth pain in the absence of objective clinical abnormalities. Vitamin or mineral deficiencies may have a role in BMS, but data regarding the prevalence and relevance of hematinic deficiencies are conflicting. We aimed to determine the frequency of specific laboratory abnormalities in patients with BMS. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the results of screening blood tests in patients with BMS at our institution between January 2003 and December 2013. Results: Among 659 patients with BMS, the most common decreased values or deficiencies were vitamin D3 (15%), vitamin B2 (15%), vitamin B6 (5.7%), zinc (5.7%), vitamin B1 (5.3%), thyrotropin (TSH) (3.2%), vitamin B12 (0.8%), and folic acid (0.7%). Laboratory values for fasting blood glucose and TSH were increased in 23.7% and 5.2%, respectively. Conclusions: In patients with symptoms of BMS, our results suggest it is reasonable to screen for fasting blood glucose, vitamin D (D2 and D3), vitamin B6, zinc, vitamin B1, and TSH. Deficiencies of vitamin B12 and folic acid were rare (<1% abnormal).
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