Background and Purpose: The aim of this experiment was to study the serial changes in brain intracellular pH, cerebral blood flow, and the oxidation/reduction level of intramitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide fluorescence across the cortical surface during severe incomplete global ischemia. Methods: Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide fluorescence and brain intracellular pH using the pH-sensitive indicator umbelliferone were measured with in vivo panoramic fluorescence imaging of the cortical surface. Cerebral blood flow was measured with the clearance of both umbelliferone and xenon-133. Fifteen minutes of severe incomplete global ischemia was produced by temporary occlusion of the innominate, left carotid, and subclavian arteries in five fasted New Zealand White rabbits. Results: Baseline brain intracellular pH was homogeneous over the exposed cortex, measuring 7.00±0.02, while cerebral blood flow was 48.0±2.6 ml/100 g/min. During 15 minutes of ischemia, cerebral blood flow measured 6.3±1.8 ml/100 g/min and brain pH declined to 6.61±0.02 (p<0.005); in addition, there were acidotic foci with pH measuring 6.40±0.10. During reperfusion, there was an initial normalization of brain intracellular pH without an alkaline shift followed by a recurrent cortical acidosis of pH 6.88±0.06. There was a heterogeneous pattern of fluorescence that increased significantly following 60 minutes of reperfusion, coinciding with a postischemic hypoperfusion. The hypoperfusion was a uniform reduction in cerebral blood flow over the brain's surface, with reductions of 42.5% and 44.2% at 30 and 45 minutes, respectively. Conclusions: During incomplete global ischemia there is a heterogeneous pattern of brain intracellular pH and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide changes that do not correlate with changes in cortical blood flow. The acidotic foci that were approximately 0.2 pH units more acidotic than the surrounding cortex may be the result of continued glucose delivery under anaerobic conditions. The degree of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide fluorescence suggests that the cortex is most vulnerable to metabolic failure after 60 minutes of reperfusion following severe incomplete global ischemia. The heterogeneous pattern of brain intracellular pH and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide changes suggest that there may be a selective vulnerability of cortical tissue to an ischemic challenge.
- Brain intracellular pH
- Cerebral blood flow
- Cerebral ischemia
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Advanced and Specialized Nursing