Brain Distribution and Active Efflux of Three panRAF Inhibitors

Considerations in the Treatment of Melanoma Brain Metastases

Gautham Gampa, Minjee Kim, Afroz S. Mohammad, Karen E. Parrish, Ann C. Mladek, Jann N Sarkaria, William F. Elmquist

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Targeted inhibition of RAF and MEK by molecularly targeted agents has been employed as a strategy to block aberrant mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in melanoma. While the use of BRAF and MEK inhibitors, either as a single agent or in combination, improved efficacy in BRAF-mutant melanoma, initial responses are often followed by relapse due to acquired resistance. Moreover, some BRAF inhibitors are associated with paradoxical activation of the MAPK pathway, causing the development of secondary malignancies. The use of panRAF inhibitors, i.e., those that target all isoforms of RAF, may overcome paradoxical activation and resistance. The purpose of this study was to perform a quantitative assessment and evaluation of the influence of efflux mechanisms at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), in particular, Abcb1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and Abcg2/breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), on the brain distribution of three panRAF inhibitors: CCT196969 [1-(3-(tert-butyl)-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-((3-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrido[2,3-b]pyrazin-8-yl)oxy)phenyl)urea], LY3009120 1-(3,3-Dimethylbutyl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-methyl-5-(7-methyl-2-(methylamino)pyrido(2,3-d)pyrimidin-6-yl)phenyl)urea, and MLN2480 [4-pyrimidinecarboxamide, 6-amino-5-chloro-N-[(1R)-1-[5-[[[5-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]amino]carbonyl]-2-thiazolyl]ethyl]-]. In vitro studies using transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells indicate that only LY3009120 and MLN2480 are substrates of Bcrp, and none of the three inhibitors are substrates of P-gp. The three panRAF inhibitors show high nonspecific binding in brain and plasma. In vivo studies in mice show that the brain distribution of CCT196969, LY3009120, and MLN2480 is limited, and is enhanced in transgenic mice lacking P-gp and Bcrp. While MLN2480 has a higher brain distribution, LY3009120 exhibits superior in vitro efficacy in patient-derived melanoma cell lines. The delivery of a drug to the site of action residing behind a functionally intact BBB, along with drug potency against the target, collectively play a critical role in determining in vivo efficacy outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)446-461
Number of pages16
JournalThe Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics
Volume368
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2019

Fingerprint

Melanoma
Neoplasm Metastasis
P-Glycoprotein
Brain
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
Breast Neoplasms
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Blood-Brain Barrier
Proteins
Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Transgenic Mice
Protein Isoforms
LY3009120
Recurrence
Cell Line
Neoplasms
1-(3-tert-butyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(3-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrido(3,2-b)pyrazin-8-yloxy)phenyl)urea
In Vitro Techniques

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology

Cite this

Brain Distribution and Active Efflux of Three panRAF Inhibitors : Considerations in the Treatment of Melanoma Brain Metastases. / Gampa, Gautham; Kim, Minjee; Mohammad, Afroz S.; Parrish, Karen E.; Mladek, Ann C.; Sarkaria, Jann N; Elmquist, William F.

In: The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics, Vol. 368, No. 3, 01.03.2019, p. 446-461.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gampa, Gautham ; Kim, Minjee ; Mohammad, Afroz S. ; Parrish, Karen E. ; Mladek, Ann C. ; Sarkaria, Jann N ; Elmquist, William F. / Brain Distribution and Active Efflux of Three panRAF Inhibitors : Considerations in the Treatment of Melanoma Brain Metastases. In: The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 2019 ; Vol. 368, No. 3. pp. 446-461.
@article{31b357426d5c4dc58714cfeb888b52c7,
title = "Brain Distribution and Active Efflux of Three panRAF Inhibitors: Considerations in the Treatment of Melanoma Brain Metastases",
abstract = "Targeted inhibition of RAF and MEK by molecularly targeted agents has been employed as a strategy to block aberrant mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in melanoma. While the use of BRAF and MEK inhibitors, either as a single agent or in combination, improved efficacy in BRAF-mutant melanoma, initial responses are often followed by relapse due to acquired resistance. Moreover, some BRAF inhibitors are associated with paradoxical activation of the MAPK pathway, causing the development of secondary malignancies. The use of panRAF inhibitors, i.e., those that target all isoforms of RAF, may overcome paradoxical activation and resistance. The purpose of this study was to perform a quantitative assessment and evaluation of the influence of efflux mechanisms at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), in particular, Abcb1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and Abcg2/breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), on the brain distribution of three panRAF inhibitors: CCT196969 [1-(3-(tert-butyl)-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-((3-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrido[2,3-b]pyrazin-8-yl)oxy)phenyl)urea], LY3009120 1-(3,3-Dimethylbutyl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-methyl-5-(7-methyl-2-(methylamino)pyrido(2,3-d)pyrimidin-6-yl)phenyl)urea, and MLN2480 [4-pyrimidinecarboxamide, 6-amino-5-chloro-N-[(1R)-1-[5-[[[5-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]amino]carbonyl]-2-thiazolyl]ethyl]-]. In vitro studies using transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells indicate that only LY3009120 and MLN2480 are substrates of Bcrp, and none of the three inhibitors are substrates of P-gp. The three panRAF inhibitors show high nonspecific binding in brain and plasma. In vivo studies in mice show that the brain distribution of CCT196969, LY3009120, and MLN2480 is limited, and is enhanced in transgenic mice lacking P-gp and Bcrp. While MLN2480 has a higher brain distribution, LY3009120 exhibits superior in vitro efficacy in patient-derived melanoma cell lines. The delivery of a drug to the site of action residing behind a functionally intact BBB, along with drug potency against the target, collectively play a critical role in determining in vivo efficacy outcomes.",
author = "Gautham Gampa and Minjee Kim and Mohammad, {Afroz S.} and Parrish, {Karen E.} and Mladek, {Ann C.} and Sarkaria, {Jann N} and Elmquist, {William F.}",
year = "2019",
month = "3",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1124/jpet.118.253708",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "368",
pages = "446--461",
journal = "Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics",
issn = "0022-3565",
publisher = "American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Brain Distribution and Active Efflux of Three panRAF Inhibitors

T2 - Considerations in the Treatment of Melanoma Brain Metastases

AU - Gampa, Gautham

AU - Kim, Minjee

AU - Mohammad, Afroz S.

AU - Parrish, Karen E.

AU - Mladek, Ann C.

AU - Sarkaria, Jann N

AU - Elmquist, William F.

PY - 2019/3/1

Y1 - 2019/3/1

N2 - Targeted inhibition of RAF and MEK by molecularly targeted agents has been employed as a strategy to block aberrant mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in melanoma. While the use of BRAF and MEK inhibitors, either as a single agent or in combination, improved efficacy in BRAF-mutant melanoma, initial responses are often followed by relapse due to acquired resistance. Moreover, some BRAF inhibitors are associated with paradoxical activation of the MAPK pathway, causing the development of secondary malignancies. The use of panRAF inhibitors, i.e., those that target all isoforms of RAF, may overcome paradoxical activation and resistance. The purpose of this study was to perform a quantitative assessment and evaluation of the influence of efflux mechanisms at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), in particular, Abcb1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and Abcg2/breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), on the brain distribution of three panRAF inhibitors: CCT196969 [1-(3-(tert-butyl)-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-((3-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrido[2,3-b]pyrazin-8-yl)oxy)phenyl)urea], LY3009120 1-(3,3-Dimethylbutyl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-methyl-5-(7-methyl-2-(methylamino)pyrido(2,3-d)pyrimidin-6-yl)phenyl)urea, and MLN2480 [4-pyrimidinecarboxamide, 6-amino-5-chloro-N-[(1R)-1-[5-[[[5-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]amino]carbonyl]-2-thiazolyl]ethyl]-]. In vitro studies using transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells indicate that only LY3009120 and MLN2480 are substrates of Bcrp, and none of the three inhibitors are substrates of P-gp. The three panRAF inhibitors show high nonspecific binding in brain and plasma. In vivo studies in mice show that the brain distribution of CCT196969, LY3009120, and MLN2480 is limited, and is enhanced in transgenic mice lacking P-gp and Bcrp. While MLN2480 has a higher brain distribution, LY3009120 exhibits superior in vitro efficacy in patient-derived melanoma cell lines. The delivery of a drug to the site of action residing behind a functionally intact BBB, along with drug potency against the target, collectively play a critical role in determining in vivo efficacy outcomes.

AB - Targeted inhibition of RAF and MEK by molecularly targeted agents has been employed as a strategy to block aberrant mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in melanoma. While the use of BRAF and MEK inhibitors, either as a single agent or in combination, improved efficacy in BRAF-mutant melanoma, initial responses are often followed by relapse due to acquired resistance. Moreover, some BRAF inhibitors are associated with paradoxical activation of the MAPK pathway, causing the development of secondary malignancies. The use of panRAF inhibitors, i.e., those that target all isoforms of RAF, may overcome paradoxical activation and resistance. The purpose of this study was to perform a quantitative assessment and evaluation of the influence of efflux mechanisms at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), in particular, Abcb1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and Abcg2/breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), on the brain distribution of three panRAF inhibitors: CCT196969 [1-(3-(tert-butyl)-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-((3-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrido[2,3-b]pyrazin-8-yl)oxy)phenyl)urea], LY3009120 1-(3,3-Dimethylbutyl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-methyl-5-(7-methyl-2-(methylamino)pyrido(2,3-d)pyrimidin-6-yl)phenyl)urea, and MLN2480 [4-pyrimidinecarboxamide, 6-amino-5-chloro-N-[(1R)-1-[5-[[[5-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]amino]carbonyl]-2-thiazolyl]ethyl]-]. In vitro studies using transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells indicate that only LY3009120 and MLN2480 are substrates of Bcrp, and none of the three inhibitors are substrates of P-gp. The three panRAF inhibitors show high nonspecific binding in brain and plasma. In vivo studies in mice show that the brain distribution of CCT196969, LY3009120, and MLN2480 is limited, and is enhanced in transgenic mice lacking P-gp and Bcrp. While MLN2480 has a higher brain distribution, LY3009120 exhibits superior in vitro efficacy in patient-derived melanoma cell lines. The delivery of a drug to the site of action residing behind a functionally intact BBB, along with drug potency against the target, collectively play a critical role in determining in vivo efficacy outcomes.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85061504727&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85061504727&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1124/jpet.118.253708

DO - 10.1124/jpet.118.253708

M3 - Article

VL - 368

SP - 446

EP - 461

JO - Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

JF - Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

SN - 0022-3565

IS - 3

ER -