We retrospectively reviewed all patients (n = 243) receiving bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (VRd) induction followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for multiple myeloma at the Mayo Clinic between January 2010 and April of 2017. Median age was 61 (interquartile range, 55–67) with 62% of patients being male. High-risk cytogenetic abnormalities (HRA) were present in 34% of patients. A total of 166 (68%) patients received some form of maintenance/other therapy post transplant (no maintenance (NM, n = 77), lenalidomide maintenance (LM, n = 108), bortezomib maintenance (BM, n = 39), and other therapy (OT, n = 19)). Overall response rate at day 100 post ASCT was 99% (CR 42%) with CR rate increasing to 62% at time of best response post transplant. Two year and 5 year overall survival rates were 90% and 67%, respectively, with an estimated median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of 96 and 28 months, respectively. HRA was associated with a worse OS but not PFS (median OS: not reached for standard risk vs 60 months for HRA, P = 0.0006; median PFS: 27 months for standard risk vs 22 months for HRA, P = 0.70). The combination of VRd followed by ASCT is a highly effective regimen producing deep and durable responses in many patients.
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