Black phosphorus incorporation modulates nanocomposite hydrogel properties and subsequent MC3T3 cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation

Haocheng Xu, Xifeng Liu, Matthew N. George, A. Lee Miller, Sungjo Park, Hao Xu, Andre Terzic, Lichun Lu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

A promising strategy that emerged in tissue engineering is to incorporate two-dimensional (2D) materials into polymer scaffolds, producing materials with desirable mechanical properties and surface chemistries, which also display broad biocompatibility. Black phosphorus (BP) is a 2D material that has sparked recent scientific interest due to its unique structure and electrochemical characteristics. In this study, BP nanosheets (BPNSs) were incorporated into a cross-linkable oligo[poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate] (OPF) hydrogel to produce a new nanocomposite for bone regeneration. BPNSs exhibited a controllable degradation rate coupled with the release of phosphate in vitro. MTS assay results together with live/dead images confirmed that the introduction of BPNSs into OPF hydrogels enhanced MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation. Moreover, the morphology parameters indicated better attachments of cells in the BPNSs containing group. Immunofluorescence images as well as intercellular ALP and OCN activities showed that adding a certain amount of BPNSs to OPF hydrogel could greatly improve differentiation of pre-osteoblasts on the hydrogel. Additionally, embedding black phosphorous into a neutral polymer network helped to control its cytotoxicity, with optimal cell growth observed at BP concentrations as high as 500 ppm. These results reinforced that the supplementation of OPF with BPNSs can increase the osteogenic capacity of polymer scaffolds for use in bone tissue engineering.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

Keywords

  • 2D materials
  • black phosphorus
  • hydrogel
  • osteogenesis
  • phosphate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys

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