Sustained or repeating chronic infections have been linked to arterial calcification. Biologic nanoparticles (NPs) that propagate in culture have been isolated from calcified soft tissues. When inoculated into experimental animals, NPs appear to exacerbate the arterial response to injury, up to and including medial discontinuity and vascular occlusion. These NPs may be re-assembled proteins and microvesicles derived from mammalian cells and/or microorganisms.
- Arterial calcification
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