Beyond phylotyping: Understanding the impact of gut microbiota on host biology

Christopher S. Reigstad, Purna C. Kashyap

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

25 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Microbial constituents of the gut microbiome interact with each other and the host to alter the luminal environment and impact development, motility, and homeostasis of the gut. Powerful methods are becoming available to investigate connections between the gut microbiome and human health. While high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes can be used to identify and enumerate microbes in the gut, advances in several techniques (e.g., metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metabolomics, and metaproteomics) are providing a clearer view as to the specific activities of the microbiota in the context of functional host-microbe interactions. Testing emergent hypotheses regarding microbial effects on host biology, which arise from analyses of 'Big Data' generated from massive parallel high-throughput sequencing technology and spectroscopic techniques, to guide translational research is an important goal for the future. Insights regarding the fundamental operating principles of the gut microbiota should lay the foundation for rational manipulation of the microbiota to promote human health. Purpose: In this review, we provide an overview of current research on the gut microbiome emphasizing current state-of-the-art technologies, approaches, and directions for improvement of our understanding of the impact of the gut microbiota with specific focus on gastrointestinal motility disorders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)358-372
Number of pages15
JournalNeurogastroenterology and Motility
Volume25
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2013

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Keywords

  • Enteric
  • Genomics
  • Germ-free
  • Humanized
  • Physiology
  • Transcriptomics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Endocrine and Autonomic Systems
  • Gastroenterology

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