Purpose: We describe cross-sectional associations of benign prostate specific antigen with clinical urological measures and examined the risk of future urological outcomes in 2 population based cohorts of black and white men, respectively. Materials and Methods: Two population based cohort studies were established to characterize the natural history of and risk factors for prostate disease progression in white and black male residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, and Genesee County, Michigan, respectively. Results: The benign prostate specific antigen distribution was similar in black men at a median of 32.9 pg/ml (25th, 75th percentiles 17.3, 68.0) and white men at a median of 32.2 pg/ml (25th, 75th percentiles 16.6, 68.9, respectively). However, it was much lower than in previous reports. For Olmsted County men in the upper quartile of benign prostate specific antigen there was a fifteenfold increased risk of prostate cancer (HR 14.6, 95% CI 3.168.6) and a twofold higher risk of treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.24.2) after adjusting for age. After additional adjustment for baseline prostate specific antigen the association between benign prostate specific antigen and prostate cancer risk was attenuated but remained almost ninefold higher for men in the upper quartile of benign prostate specific antigen (HR 8.7, 95% CI 1.842.4). The twofold higher risk of treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia also remained after adjusting for baseline prostate specific antigen for men in the upper benign prostate specific antigen quartile (HR 1.9, 95% CI 0.94.0). Conclusions: Results suggest that increased benign prostate specific antigen may help identify men with prostate cancer and those at risk for benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment.
- continental population groups
- prostate-specific antigen
- prostatic hyperplasia
- prostatic neoplasms
ASJC Scopus subject areas