Bcl-2 is overexpressed and alters the threshold for apoptosis in a cholangiocarcinoma cell line

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Abstract

Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignant neoplasm originating from cholangiocytes. The mechanisms responsible for oncogenesis of cholangiocytes are unknown. Resistance to apoptosis, especially by altered expression of B- cell lymphoma/leukemia 2 (Bcl-2) family members, has been implicated as a mechanism contributing to malignant transformation. Thus, our aim was to test the hypothesis that altered expression of Bcl-2 family members by cholangiocarcinoma cells renders them resistant to apoptosis. We compared the apoptotic threshold and expression of the Bcl-2 protein family members, Bcl- 2, Bcl-x(L), and Bax, in two human cell lines: 1) nonmalignant human cholangiocytes immortalized by transfection with the simian virus 40 (SV 40) large T antigen; and 2) a malignant human cholangiocarcinoma cell line. Apoptosis was induced pharmacologically using beauvericin. Bcl-2, Bcl-x long, and Bax protein expression were evaluated by immunoblot analysis, and Bcl-2 expression was modulated using antisense technology. The cholangiocyte and malignant/non-malignant phenotype of both cell lines was verified using both in vitro and in vivo approaches. Beauvericin induced apoptosis of nonmalignant cholangiocytes in a concentration- (0 to 25 μmol/L) and time- (0 to 6 hours) dependent manner. In contrast, malignant cholangiocytes were resistant to apoptosis. Although expression of Bcl-x long and Bax protein were similar in the two cell lines, Bcl-2 protein expression was 15-fold greater in malignant than in nonmalignant cholangiocytes. An 18 met bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotide reduced expression of Bcl-2 protein by 50% and increased the rate of beauvericin-induced apoptosis more than threefold in the malignant cells. Our results support the hypothesis that resistance to apoptosis by overexpression of Bcl-2 may be a feature of cholangiocarcinoma.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)884-890
Number of pages7
JournalHepatology
Volume26
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 1997

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B-Cell Leukemia
Cholangiocarcinoma
B-Cell Lymphoma
Apoptosis
Cell Line
bcl-2-Associated X Protein
Proteins
Simian virus 40
Antisense Oligonucleotides
Viral Tumor Antigens
Transfection
Carcinogenesis
Technology
Phenotype

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology

Cite this

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title = "Bcl-2 is overexpressed and alters the threshold for apoptosis in a cholangiocarcinoma cell line",
abstract = "Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignant neoplasm originating from cholangiocytes. The mechanisms responsible for oncogenesis of cholangiocytes are unknown. Resistance to apoptosis, especially by altered expression of B- cell lymphoma/leukemia 2 (Bcl-2) family members, has been implicated as a mechanism contributing to malignant transformation. Thus, our aim was to test the hypothesis that altered expression of Bcl-2 family members by cholangiocarcinoma cells renders them resistant to apoptosis. We compared the apoptotic threshold and expression of the Bcl-2 protein family members, Bcl- 2, Bcl-x(L), and Bax, in two human cell lines: 1) nonmalignant human cholangiocytes immortalized by transfection with the simian virus 40 (SV 40) large T antigen; and 2) a malignant human cholangiocarcinoma cell line. Apoptosis was induced pharmacologically using beauvericin. Bcl-2, Bcl-x long, and Bax protein expression were evaluated by immunoblot analysis, and Bcl-2 expression was modulated using antisense technology. The cholangiocyte and malignant/non-malignant phenotype of both cell lines was verified using both in vitro and in vivo approaches. Beauvericin induced apoptosis of nonmalignant cholangiocytes in a concentration- (0 to 25 μmol/L) and time- (0 to 6 hours) dependent manner. In contrast, malignant cholangiocytes were resistant to apoptosis. Although expression of Bcl-x long and Bax protein were similar in the two cell lines, Bcl-2 protein expression was 15-fold greater in malignant than in nonmalignant cholangiocytes. An 18 met bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotide reduced expression of Bcl-2 protein by 50{\%} and increased the rate of beauvericin-induced apoptosis more than threefold in the malignant cells. Our results support the hypothesis that resistance to apoptosis by overexpression of Bcl-2 may be a feature of cholangiocarcinoma.",
author = "Denise Harnois and Florencia Que and Adriane Celli and {La Russo}, {Nicholas F} and Gores, {Gregory James}",
year = "1997",
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T1 - Bcl-2 is overexpressed and alters the threshold for apoptosis in a cholangiocarcinoma cell line

AU - Harnois, Denise

AU - Que, Florencia

AU - Celli, Adriane

AU - La Russo, Nicholas F

AU - Gores, Gregory James

PY - 1997/10

Y1 - 1997/10

N2 - Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignant neoplasm originating from cholangiocytes. The mechanisms responsible for oncogenesis of cholangiocytes are unknown. Resistance to apoptosis, especially by altered expression of B- cell lymphoma/leukemia 2 (Bcl-2) family members, has been implicated as a mechanism contributing to malignant transformation. Thus, our aim was to test the hypothesis that altered expression of Bcl-2 family members by cholangiocarcinoma cells renders them resistant to apoptosis. We compared the apoptotic threshold and expression of the Bcl-2 protein family members, Bcl- 2, Bcl-x(L), and Bax, in two human cell lines: 1) nonmalignant human cholangiocytes immortalized by transfection with the simian virus 40 (SV 40) large T antigen; and 2) a malignant human cholangiocarcinoma cell line. Apoptosis was induced pharmacologically using beauvericin. Bcl-2, Bcl-x long, and Bax protein expression were evaluated by immunoblot analysis, and Bcl-2 expression was modulated using antisense technology. The cholangiocyte and malignant/non-malignant phenotype of both cell lines was verified using both in vitro and in vivo approaches. Beauvericin induced apoptosis of nonmalignant cholangiocytes in a concentration- (0 to 25 μmol/L) and time- (0 to 6 hours) dependent manner. In contrast, malignant cholangiocytes were resistant to apoptosis. Although expression of Bcl-x long and Bax protein were similar in the two cell lines, Bcl-2 protein expression was 15-fold greater in malignant than in nonmalignant cholangiocytes. An 18 met bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotide reduced expression of Bcl-2 protein by 50% and increased the rate of beauvericin-induced apoptosis more than threefold in the malignant cells. Our results support the hypothesis that resistance to apoptosis by overexpression of Bcl-2 may be a feature of cholangiocarcinoma.

AB - Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignant neoplasm originating from cholangiocytes. The mechanisms responsible for oncogenesis of cholangiocytes are unknown. Resistance to apoptosis, especially by altered expression of B- cell lymphoma/leukemia 2 (Bcl-2) family members, has been implicated as a mechanism contributing to malignant transformation. Thus, our aim was to test the hypothesis that altered expression of Bcl-2 family members by cholangiocarcinoma cells renders them resistant to apoptosis. We compared the apoptotic threshold and expression of the Bcl-2 protein family members, Bcl- 2, Bcl-x(L), and Bax, in two human cell lines: 1) nonmalignant human cholangiocytes immortalized by transfection with the simian virus 40 (SV 40) large T antigen; and 2) a malignant human cholangiocarcinoma cell line. Apoptosis was induced pharmacologically using beauvericin. Bcl-2, Bcl-x long, and Bax protein expression were evaluated by immunoblot analysis, and Bcl-2 expression was modulated using antisense technology. The cholangiocyte and malignant/non-malignant phenotype of both cell lines was verified using both in vitro and in vivo approaches. Beauvericin induced apoptosis of nonmalignant cholangiocytes in a concentration- (0 to 25 μmol/L) and time- (0 to 6 hours) dependent manner. In contrast, malignant cholangiocytes were resistant to apoptosis. Although expression of Bcl-x long and Bax protein were similar in the two cell lines, Bcl-2 protein expression was 15-fold greater in malignant than in nonmalignant cholangiocytes. An 18 met bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotide reduced expression of Bcl-2 protein by 50% and increased the rate of beauvericin-induced apoptosis more than threefold in the malignant cells. Our results support the hypothesis that resistance to apoptosis by overexpression of Bcl-2 may be a feature of cholangiocarcinoma.

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