Background: Cardiogenic shock (CGS) historically results in high inhospital mortality, particularly in elderly patients. Factors that contribute to increased mortality and treatment strategies that improve short- and long-term outcomes in patients with CGS remain to be established. Methods: The study consisted of 1263 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted from Olmsted County, Minn, during the period 1988 to 2000; of these, 73 (6%) developed cardiogenic shock. Short- and long-term mortality was compared between the elderly and younger populations in both shock and nonshock groups. Results: In patients with acute myocardial infarction, age of ≥65 years was associated with increased long-term mortality for nonshock patients (unadjusted relative risk [RR] 5.23, 95% CI 4.10-6.67, P < .001) and to a lesser degree in patients with cardiogenic shock (unadjusted RR 2.02, 95% CI 1.12-3.65, P = .02). Among cardiogenic shock patients, estimated survival at 1 and 5 years for elderly patients was 38% and 24%, respectively, and in younger patients, 57% and 52%, respectively. When adjusted for confounding variables, elderly noncardiogenic shock patients had significantly increased long-term mortality (adjusted RR 4.38, 95% CI 3.42-5.61, P < .001) compared to younger nonshock patients. In contrast, elderly patients with cardiogenic shock demonstrated a weaker trend toward worse outcomes (adjusted RR 1.80, 95% CI 1.00-3.27, P = .051) compared to younger patients with shock. Conclusions: The relationship between age and long-term mortality is stronger among patients who do not develop cardiogenic shock. Advanced age was not found to be as strong a risk factor for survival in patients with cardiogenic shock; comorbidities and less aggressive treatment appear to be the major factors resulting in poor outcomes in the elderly patient with cardiogenic shock.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine