Autologous Stem-Cell Transplantation for Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Iyad Alnahhas, Mohammad Jawish, Mouaz Alsawas, Alicia Zukas, Larry Prokop, M. Hassan Murad, Mark Malkin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an aggressive form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Methotrexate is first-line chemotherapy. Autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) is increasingly used as an alternative consolidative treatment to whole-brain radiotherapy. Methods: A systematic search of several databases was conducted up through January 10, 2018. Two investigators independently assessed study eligibility and extracted the data. Studies that reported survival outcomes after ASCT were included. Results: We screened 1517 references and included 43 studies. ASCT was used as consolidative treatment or as salvage treatment/at relapse. Thiotepa, busulfan, and cyclophosphamide and carmustine/thiotepa were commonly used conditioning regimens. In the consolidation setting, 94% of patients experienced or maintained complete or partial response after ASCT. The rates of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 94%, 86%, 82%, and 70% and 79%, 70%, 64%, and 54% after 1, 2, 3, and 5 years, respectively. The overall risk of relapse at 5 years was 24%. In the salvage/relapse settings, 85% of patients experienced or maintained complete response or partial response after ASCT. The rates of OS and PFS were 75%, 63%, 56%, and 54% and 85%, 62%, 59%, and 54% after 1, 2, 3, and 5 years, respectively. The risk of relapse at 5 years was 29%. Subgroup analysis showed that the use of carmustine and thiotepa as a conditioning regimen carried the lowest risk of transplant-related mortality. The thiotepa, busulfan, and cyclophosphamide regimen, on the other hand, showed numerically superior OS and PFS rates. Conclusion: This review provides estimates for response and survival to aid in decision making when considering ASCT for patients with PCNSL.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e129-e141
JournalClinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia
Volume19
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2019

Keywords

  • Conditioning chemotherapy
  • Consolidation
  • Induction chemotherapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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