Autoimmune movement disorders

Andrew Mckeon, Angela Vincent

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

8 Scopus citations

Abstract

Autoimmune movement disorders encapsulate a large and diverse group of neurologic disorders occurring either in isolation or accompanying more diffuse autoimmune encephalitic illnesses. The full range of movement phenomena has been described and, as they often occur in adults, many of the presentations can mimic neurodegenerative disorders, such as Huntington disease. Disorders may be ataxic, hypokinetic (parkinsonism), or hyperkinetic (myoclonus, chorea, tics, and other dyskinetic disorders). The autoantibody targets are diverse and include neuronal surface proteins such as leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and glycine receptors, as well as antibodies (such as intracellular antigens) that are markers of a central nervous system process mediated by CD8. + cytotoxic T cells. However, there are two conditions, stiff-person syndrome (also known as stiff-man syndrome) and progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM), that are always autoimmune movement disorders. In some instances (such as Purkinje cell cytoplasmic antibody-1 (PCA-1) autoimmunity), antibodies detected in serum and cerebrospinal fluid can be indicative of a paraneoplastic cause, and may direct the cancer search. In other instances (such as 65 kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) autoimmunity), a paraneoplastic cause is very unlikely, and early treatment with immunotherapy may promote improvement or recovery. Here we describe the different types of movement disorder and the clinical features and antibodies associated with them, and discuss treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAutoimmune Neurology, 2016
EditorsSean J. Pittock, Angela Vincent
PublisherElsevier
Pages301-315
Number of pages15
ISBN (Print)9780444634320
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016

Publication series

NameHandbook of Clinical Neurology
Volume133
ISSN (Print)0072-9752
ISSN (Electronic)2212-4152

Keywords

  • Autoimmune
  • Chorea
  • Myoclonus
  • PERM
  • Stiff-person

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology

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  • Cite this

    Mckeon, A., & Vincent, A. (2016). Autoimmune movement disorders. In S. J. Pittock, & A. Vincent (Eds.), Autoimmune Neurology, 2016 (pp. 301-315). (Handbook of Clinical Neurology; Vol. 133). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-63432-0.00017-7