In this prospective evaluation of serum and CSF samples, all but two CSF GFAPα-IgG positive patients had autoimmune meningoencephalomyelitis while serum GFAPα-IgG positivity alone was less specific. Phenotypes were diverse among patients that were serum positive only. Adult and pediatric clinical presentations were similar. Most patients were immunotherapy responsive. Co-existing NMDA-R-IgG and cancer were associated with lack of response to first-line immunotherapy. Among patients with follow-up information, 18% had relapses. This study demonstrates CSF GFAPα-IgG is a specific autoimmune meningoencephalomyelitis biomarker, with favorable corticosteroid response. Lack of response should prompt evaluation for co-existing NMDA-R-IgG or malignancy.
- Cerebrospinal fluid
- Glial fibrillary astrocytic protein
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy
- Clinical Neurology