PET with targeted radiotracers has become integral to mapping the location and burden of recurrent disease in patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) of prostate cancer (PCa). PET with 11C-choline is part of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network and European Association of Urology guidelines for evaluation of BCR. With advances in PET technology, increasing use of targeted radiotracers, and improved survival of patients with BCR because of novel therapeutics, atypical sites of metastases are being increasingly encountered, challenging the conventional view that prostate cancer rarely metastasizes beyond bones or lymph nodes. The purpose of this article is to describe such atypical metastases in the abdomen and pelvis on 11C-choline PET (including metastases to the liver, pancreas, genital tract, urinary tract, peritoneum, abdominal wall, and perineural spread) and to present multimodality imaging features and relevant imaging pitfalls. Given atypical metastases' inconsistent relationship with the serum PSA level and the nonspecific presenting symptoms, atypical metastases are often first detected on imaging. Awareness of their imaging features is important because their detection affects clinical management, patient counseling, prognosis, and clinical trial eligibility. Such awareness is particularly critical because the role of radiologists in the imaging and management of BCR will continue to increase given the expanding regulatory approvals of other targeted and theranostic radiotracers.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging