With the discovery of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), the heart as an endocrine organ was established. Basic science revealed that ANP, through the particulate guanylyl cyclase A receptor and cGMP, plays a fundamental role in cardiorenal biology. This work has led to the development of ANP as a therapeutic, especially in heart failure (HF). Human genomics has strengthened our understanding of ANP, revealing specific ANP gene variants that may be associated with biological dysfunction, but also may mediate protective properties, including in metabolic syndrome. Advances in understanding the processing and degradation of ANP molecular forms have resulted in therapeutic breakthroughs, especially inhibition of ANP degradation by neprilysin inhibitors. Although ANP is administered intravenously for acute HF, a novel therapeutic strategy is its chronic delivery by subcutaneous injection. An innovative therapeutic development is engineering to develop ANP-based peptides for chronic use. These interconnected topics of ANP biology and therapeutics will be reviewed in detail.
- Atrial natriuretic peptide
- Cardiorenal biology
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine