Objectives: Childhood asthma is known to be associated with risks of both respiratory and non-respiratory infections. Little is known about the relationship between asthma and the risk of Kawasaki disease (KD). We assessed associations of asthma status and asthma phenotype (e.g. atopic asthma) with KD. Methods: We performed a population-based retrospective case-control study, using KD cases between January 1, 1979, and December 31, 2016, and two matched controls per case. KD cases were defined by the American Heart Association diagnostic criteria. Asthma status prior to KD (or control) index dates was ascertained by the two asthma criteria, Predetermined Asthma Criteria (PAC) and Asthma Predictive Index (API, a surrogate phenotype of atopic asthma). We assessed whether 4 phenotypes (both PAC + and API+; PAC + only; API + only, and non-asthmatics) were associated with KD. Results: There were 124 KD cases during the study period. The group having both PAC + and API + was significantly associated with the increased odds of KD, compared to non-asthmatics (odds ratio [OR] 4.3; 95% CI: 1.3 − 14.3). While asthma defined by PAC was not associated with KD, asthma defined by PAC positive with eosinophilia (≥4%) was significantly associated with the increased odds of KD (OR: 6.7; 95% CI: 1.6 − 28.6) compared to non-asthmatics. Asthma status defined by API was associated with KD (OR = 4.7; 95% CI: 1.4–15.1). Conclusions: Atopic asthma may be associated with increased odds of KD. Further prospective studies are needed to determine biological mechanisms underlying the association between atopic asthma and increased odds of KD.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Immunology and Allergy
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine