Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM and Rad3-related protein exhibit selective target specificities in response to different forms of DNA damage

Christopher E. Helt, William A. Cliby, Peter C. Keng, Robert A. Bambara, Michael A. O'Reilly

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

127 Scopus citations

Abstract

The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) protein kinases exert cell cycle delay, in part, by phosphorylating Checkpoint kinase (Chk) 1, Chk2, and p53. It is well established that ATR is activated following UV light-induced DNA damage such as pyrimidine dimers and the 6-(1,2)-dihydro-2-oxo-4-pyrimidinyl-5-methyl-2,4-(1H,3H)-pyrimidinediones, whereas ATM is activated in response to double strand DNA breaks. Here we clarify the activation of these kinases in cells exposed to IR, UV, and hyperoxia, a condition of chronic oxidative stress resulting in clastogenic DNA damage. Phosphorylation on Chk1(Ser-345), Chk2(Thr-68), and p53(Ser-15) following oxidative damage by IR involved both ATM and ATR. In response to ultraviolet radiation-induced stalled replication forks, phosphorylation on Chk1 and p53 required ATR, whereas Chk2 required ATM. Cells exposed to hyperoxia exhibited growth delay in G1, S, and G2 that was disrupted by wortmannin. Consistent with ATM or ATR activation, hyperoxia induced wortmannin-sensitive phosphorylation of Chk1, Chk2, and p53. By using ATM- and ATR-defective cells, phosphorylation on Chk1, Chk2, and p53 was found to be ATM-dependent, whereas ATR also contributed to Chk1 phosphorylation. These data reveal activated ATM and ATR exhibit selective substrate specificity in response to different genotoxic agents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1186-1192
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume280
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 14 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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