Background: The complex relationship between clinical manifestations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and individual immune responses is not fully elucidated. Objective: To examine phenotypes of symptomatology and their relationship with positive anti–SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody responses. Methods: An observational study was performed of adults (≥18 years) from 5 US states. Participants completed an electronic survey and underwent testing to anti–SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein IgG antibody between May and July 2020. Latent class analysis was used to identify characteristic symptom clusters. Results: Overall, 9507 adults (mean age, 39.6 ± 15.0 years) completed the survey; 6665 (70.1%) underwent antibody testing for anti–SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Positive SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were associated with self-reported positive SARS-CoV-2 nasal swab result (bivariable logistic regression; odds ratio [95% CI], 5.98 [4.83-7.41]), household with 6 or more members (1.27 [1.14-1.41]) and sick contact (3.65 [3.19-4.17]), and older age (50-69 years: 1.55 [1.37-1.76]; ≥70 years: 1.52 [1.16-1.99]), but inversely associated with female sex (0.61 [0.55-0.68]). Latent class analysis revealed 8 latent classes of symptoms. Latent classes 1 (all symptoms) and 4 (fever, cough, muscle ache, anosmia, dysgeusia, and headache) were associated with the highest proportion (62.0% and 57.4%) of positive antibodies, whereas classes 6 (fever, cough, muscle ache, headache) and 8 (anosmia, dysgeusia) had intermediate proportions (48.2% and 40.5%), and classes 3 (headache, diarrhea, stomach pain) and 7 (no symptoms) had the lowest proportion (7.8% and 8.5%) of positive antibodies. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infections manifest with substantial diversity of symptoms, which are associated with variable anti–SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody responses. Prolonged fever, anosmia, and receiving supplemental oxygen therapy had strongest associations with positive SARS-CoV-2 IgG.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice|
|State||Published - Sep 2021|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy