Association of trimester-specific gestational weight gain with fetal growth, offspring obesity, and cardiometabolic traits in early childhood

Marianna Karachaliou, Vaggelis Georgiou, Theano Roumeliotaki, Georgia Chalkiadaki, Vasiliki Daraki, Stella Koinaki, Eirini Dermitzaki, Katerina Sarri, Maria Vassilaki, Manolis Kogevinas, Emily Oken, Leda Chatzi

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77 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of trimester-specific gestational weight gain with offspring fetal growth, obesity risk, and cardiometabolic health outcomes from birth to 4 years of age. Study Design We conducted the present study with 977 mother-child pairs of the pregnancy cohort "Rhea" study in Crete, Greece. We measured birthweight, body mass index from 6 months to 4 years of age, waist circumference, skinfold thickness, blood pressure, and blood levels of lipids, C-reactive protein, and adipose tissue hormones at 4 years of age. We used multiple linear and log Poisson regression models to examine the association of exposure with continuous or binary outcomes, respectively. Results Greater rate of gestational weight gain in the first trimester of pregnancy (per 200 g/wk) was associated with increased risk of overweight/obesity from 2 years (relative risk [RR], 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.42) to 4 years of age (RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.05-1.25), but not with birth size. Each 200 g/wk of weight gain in the first trimester of pregnancy was also associated with greater risk of high waist circumference (RR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04-1.23), high sum of skinfold thickness (RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02-1.29), and higher diastolic blood pressure at 4 years of age (β, 0.43 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.00-0.86). Greater rate of gestational weight gain during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy (per 200 g/wk) was associated with greater risk of large-for-gestational-age neonates (RR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.02, 1.45) and higher levels of cord blood leptin (ratio of geometric means, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.00-1.17), but not with child anthropometry at later ages. Conclusion Timing of gestational weight gain may influence childhood cardiometabolic outcomes differentially.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)502.e1-502.e14
JournalAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume212
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015
Externally publishedYes

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Keywords

  • blood pressure
  • children
  • gestational weight gain
  • obesity
  • pregnancy cohort

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

Cite this

Karachaliou, M., Georgiou, V., Roumeliotaki, T., Chalkiadaki, G., Daraki, V., Koinaki, S., Dermitzaki, E., Sarri, K., Vassilaki, M., Kogevinas, M., Oken, E., & Chatzi, L. (2015). Association of trimester-specific gestational weight gain with fetal growth, offspring obesity, and cardiometabolic traits in early childhood. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 212(4), 502.e1-502.e14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2014.12.038