Objective: To examine associations of cumulative exposure to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) with total cardiovascular disease (CVD; composed of stroke, coronary heart disease, and heart failure [HF]) and HF alone in a cohort study of White and African American participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Methods: Use of PPIs was assessed by pill bottle inspection at visit 1 (January 1, 1987 to 1989) and up to 10 additional times before baseline (visit 5; 2011 to 2013). We calculated cumulative exposure to PPIs as days of use from visit 1 to baseline. Participants (n=4346 free of total CVD at visit 5; mean age, 75 years) were observed for incident total CVD and HF events through December 31, 2016. We used Cox regression to measure associations of PPIs with total CVD and HF. Results: After adjustment for potential confounding variables, participants with a cumulative exposure to PPIs of more than 5.1 years had a 2.02-fold higher risk of total CVD (95% CI, 1.50 to 2.72) and a 2.21-fold higher risk of HF (95% CI, 1.51 to 3.23) than nonusers. Conclusion: Long-term PPI use was associated with twice the risk of total CVD and HF compared with nonusers. Our findings are in concordance with other research and suggest another reason to be cautious of PPI overuse.
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