Association of pancreatic polypeptide with mild cognitive impairment varies by APOE ε4 allele

Rosebud O Roberts, Jeremiah A. Aakre, Ruth H. Cha, Walter K Kremers, Michelle M Mielke, Stefanie N. Velgos, Yonas Endale Geda, David S Knopman, Ronald Carl Petersen

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Abstract

We conducted a preliminary case-control investigation of the association of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in 202 MCI cases (mean age, 81.6 years) and 202 age- and sex-matched cognitively normal controls in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. Plasma PP was measured and examined as the natural logarithm (continuous) and dichotomized at the median. The OR (95% CI) of MCI increased with increasing PP [1.46 (1.04-2.05)]. There was a negative interaction of PP with apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele; compared to the reference group (no APOE ε4 allele and low PP), the OR (95% CI) for combinations of ε4 and PP were: 2.64 (1.39-5.04) for APOE ε4 plus low PP; 2.09 (1.27-3.45) for no APOE ε4 plus high PP; and 1.91 (1.04-3.53) for no APOE ε4 plus high PP (P for interaction = 0.017). There was also a trend toward a negative interaction with type 2 diabetes (P for interaction = 0.058). Compared to no diabetes and low PP, the OR (95% CI) was 3.02 (1.22-7.46) for low PP plus diabetes but 1.80 (1.01-3.22) for high PP plus diabetes. Participants with high PP had a greater mean (SD) weight loss (kilograms per decade) than persons with low PP [-2.27 (4.07) vs. -1.61 (5.24); P = 0.016]. MCI cases had a non-significantly greater weight loss per decade compared to controls. These findings suggest that high PP alone or jointly with APOE ε4 allele or type 2 diabetes is associated with MCI, and that high PP may mitigate some effects of APOE ε4 allele and type 2 diabetes on cognition. Potential mechanisms may involve PP-related weight loss and centrally mediated effects of PP on cognition. These findings remain to be validated in other studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number172
JournalFrontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Volume7
Issue numberSEP
DOIs
StatePublished - 2015

Fingerprint

Apolipoprotein E4
Pancreatic Polypeptide
Alleles
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Cognitive Dysfunction
Weight Loss
Cognition

Keywords

  • Apolipoprotein E
  • Case-control study
  • Cognition
  • Mild cognitive impairment
  • Neuropeptide
  • Pancreatic polypeptide
  • Type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aging
  • Cognitive Neuroscience

Cite this

Association of pancreatic polypeptide with mild cognitive impairment varies by APOE ε4 allele. / Roberts, Rosebud O; Aakre, Jeremiah A.; Cha, Ruth H.; Kremers, Walter K; Mielke, Michelle M; Velgos, Stefanie N.; Geda, Yonas Endale; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald Carl.

In: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, Vol. 7, No. SEP, 172, 2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "We conducted a preliminary case-control investigation of the association of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in 202 MCI cases (mean age, 81.6 years) and 202 age- and sex-matched cognitively normal controls in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. Plasma PP was measured and examined as the natural logarithm (continuous) and dichotomized at the median. The OR (95{\%} CI) of MCI increased with increasing PP [1.46 (1.04-2.05)]. There was a negative interaction of PP with apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele; compared to the reference group (no APOE ε4 allele and low PP), the OR (95{\%} CI) for combinations of ε4 and PP were: 2.64 (1.39-5.04) for APOE ε4 plus low PP; 2.09 (1.27-3.45) for no APOE ε4 plus high PP; and 1.91 (1.04-3.53) for no APOE ε4 plus high PP (P for interaction = 0.017). There was also a trend toward a negative interaction with type 2 diabetes (P for interaction = 0.058). Compared to no diabetes and low PP, the OR (95{\%} CI) was 3.02 (1.22-7.46) for low PP plus diabetes but 1.80 (1.01-3.22) for high PP plus diabetes. Participants with high PP had a greater mean (SD) weight loss (kilograms per decade) than persons with low PP [-2.27 (4.07) vs. -1.61 (5.24); P = 0.016]. MCI cases had a non-significantly greater weight loss per decade compared to controls. These findings suggest that high PP alone or jointly with APOE ε4 allele or type 2 diabetes is associated with MCI, and that high PP may mitigate some effects of APOE ε4 allele and type 2 diabetes on cognition. Potential mechanisms may involve PP-related weight loss and centrally mediated effects of PP on cognition. These findings remain to be validated in other studies.",
keywords = "Apolipoprotein E, Case-control study, Cognition, Mild cognitive impairment, Neuropeptide, Pancreatic polypeptide, Type 2 diabetes",
author = "Roberts, {Rosebud O} and Aakre, {Jeremiah A.} and Cha, {Ruth H.} and Kremers, {Walter K} and Mielke, {Michelle M} and Velgos, {Stefanie N.} and Geda, {Yonas Endale} and Knopman, {David S} and Petersen, {Ronald Carl}",
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AU - Roberts, Rosebud O

AU - Aakre, Jeremiah A.

AU - Cha, Ruth H.

AU - Kremers, Walter K

AU - Mielke, Michelle M

AU - Velgos, Stefanie N.

AU - Geda, Yonas Endale

AU - Knopman, David S

AU - Petersen, Ronald Carl

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N2 - We conducted a preliminary case-control investigation of the association of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in 202 MCI cases (mean age, 81.6 years) and 202 age- and sex-matched cognitively normal controls in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. Plasma PP was measured and examined as the natural logarithm (continuous) and dichotomized at the median. The OR (95% CI) of MCI increased with increasing PP [1.46 (1.04-2.05)]. There was a negative interaction of PP with apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele; compared to the reference group (no APOE ε4 allele and low PP), the OR (95% CI) for combinations of ε4 and PP were: 2.64 (1.39-5.04) for APOE ε4 plus low PP; 2.09 (1.27-3.45) for no APOE ε4 plus high PP; and 1.91 (1.04-3.53) for no APOE ε4 plus high PP (P for interaction = 0.017). There was also a trend toward a negative interaction with type 2 diabetes (P for interaction = 0.058). Compared to no diabetes and low PP, the OR (95% CI) was 3.02 (1.22-7.46) for low PP plus diabetes but 1.80 (1.01-3.22) for high PP plus diabetes. Participants with high PP had a greater mean (SD) weight loss (kilograms per decade) than persons with low PP [-2.27 (4.07) vs. -1.61 (5.24); P = 0.016]. MCI cases had a non-significantly greater weight loss per decade compared to controls. These findings suggest that high PP alone or jointly with APOE ε4 allele or type 2 diabetes is associated with MCI, and that high PP may mitigate some effects of APOE ε4 allele and type 2 diabetes on cognition. Potential mechanisms may involve PP-related weight loss and centrally mediated effects of PP on cognition. These findings remain to be validated in other studies.

AB - We conducted a preliminary case-control investigation of the association of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in 202 MCI cases (mean age, 81.6 years) and 202 age- and sex-matched cognitively normal controls in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. Plasma PP was measured and examined as the natural logarithm (continuous) and dichotomized at the median. The OR (95% CI) of MCI increased with increasing PP [1.46 (1.04-2.05)]. There was a negative interaction of PP with apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele; compared to the reference group (no APOE ε4 allele and low PP), the OR (95% CI) for combinations of ε4 and PP were: 2.64 (1.39-5.04) for APOE ε4 plus low PP; 2.09 (1.27-3.45) for no APOE ε4 plus high PP; and 1.91 (1.04-3.53) for no APOE ε4 plus high PP (P for interaction = 0.017). There was also a trend toward a negative interaction with type 2 diabetes (P for interaction = 0.058). Compared to no diabetes and low PP, the OR (95% CI) was 3.02 (1.22-7.46) for low PP plus diabetes but 1.80 (1.01-3.22) for high PP plus diabetes. Participants with high PP had a greater mean (SD) weight loss (kilograms per decade) than persons with low PP [-2.27 (4.07) vs. -1.61 (5.24); P = 0.016]. MCI cases had a non-significantly greater weight loss per decade compared to controls. These findings suggest that high PP alone or jointly with APOE ε4 allele or type 2 diabetes is associated with MCI, and that high PP may mitigate some effects of APOE ε4 allele and type 2 diabetes on cognition. Potential mechanisms may involve PP-related weight loss and centrally mediated effects of PP on cognition. These findings remain to be validated in other studies.

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KW - Neuropeptide

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KW - Type 2 diabetes

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