Association of novel risk factors with the ankle brachial index in African American and non-hispanic white populations

Farhan J. Khawaja, Kent R Bailey, Stephen T Turner, Sharon L. Kardia, Thomas H. Mosley, Iftikhar Jan Kullo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

29 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether novel risk factors, including C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], and homocysteine levels, are associated with the ankle brachial index (ABI) in African American and non-Hispanic white populations and whether novel risk factors account for ethnic differences in peripheral arterial disease (PAD). PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Between December 2000 and October 2004, original participants in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Artericpathy study returned for a second study visit to undergo measurement of risk factors and ABI. The CRP, Lp(a), and homocysteine levels were log transformed to reduce skewnees. Multivariable regression analyses were used to assess whether a novel risk factor was associated with ABI after adjustment for conventional risk factors and whether ethnicity was associated with PAD (ABI, ≤0.95) after adjustment for conventional and novel risk factors. RESULTS: Of 2229 study participants, the ABI was determined in 1395 African American participants (mean ± SD age, 63±9 years; 71% women) and 834 white participants (mean ± SD age, 58±9 years; 62% women) whc belonged to hypertensive sibships. The mean ABI was lower in African American than in white individuals (0.99±0.1 vs 1.13±0.1; P<.001). In both ethnic groups, higher levels of CRP, fibrinogen, and homocysteine were each associated with a lower ABI after adjustment for conventional risk factors. In African American participants, the Lp(a) level was also significantly associated with the ABI. African American ethnicity was associated with the presence of PAD after adjustment for conventional risk factors (men: odds ratio [OR], 3.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.80-5.15; woman: OR, 2.82; 95% CI, 1.85-4.29), but the risk was significantly attenuated after additional adjustment for novel risk factors (men: OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.21-3.70; women: OR, 1.98; 96% CI, 1.26-3.11). CONCLUSION: Novel risk factors are associated with interindividual variation in ABI in African American and non-Hispanic white populations and partly account for the increased risk of PAD associated with African American ethnicity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)709-716
Number of pages8
JournalMayo Clinic Proceedings
Volume82
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 2007

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Ankle Brachial Index
African Americans
Population
Peripheral Arterial Disease
Fibrinogen
Lipoprotein(a)
Homocysteine
Odds Ratio
C-Reactive Protein
Confidence Intervals
Molecular Epidemiology
Ethnic Groups
Regression Analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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Association of novel risk factors with the ankle brachial index in African American and non-hispanic white populations. / Khawaja, Farhan J.; Bailey, Kent R; Turner, Stephen T; Kardia, Sharon L.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Kullo, Iftikhar Jan.

In: Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Vol. 82, No. 6, 2007, p. 709-716.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Association of novel risk factors with the ankle brachial index in African American and non-hispanic white populations",
abstract = "OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether novel risk factors, including C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], and homocysteine levels, are associated with the ankle brachial index (ABI) in African American and non-Hispanic white populations and whether novel risk factors account for ethnic differences in peripheral arterial disease (PAD). PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Between December 2000 and October 2004, original participants in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Artericpathy study returned for a second study visit to undergo measurement of risk factors and ABI. The CRP, Lp(a), and homocysteine levels were log transformed to reduce skewnees. Multivariable regression analyses were used to assess whether a novel risk factor was associated with ABI after adjustment for conventional risk factors and whether ethnicity was associated with PAD (ABI, ≤0.95) after adjustment for conventional and novel risk factors. RESULTS: Of 2229 study participants, the ABI was determined in 1395 African American participants (mean ± SD age, 63±9 years; 71{\%} women) and 834 white participants (mean ± SD age, 58±9 years; 62{\%} women) whc belonged to hypertensive sibships. The mean ABI was lower in African American than in white individuals (0.99±0.1 vs 1.13±0.1; P<.001). In both ethnic groups, higher levels of CRP, fibrinogen, and homocysteine were each associated with a lower ABI after adjustment for conventional risk factors. In African American participants, the Lp(a) level was also significantly associated with the ABI. African American ethnicity was associated with the presence of PAD after adjustment for conventional risk factors (men: odds ratio [OR], 3.04; 95{\%} confidence interval [CI], 1.80-5.15; woman: OR, 2.82; 95{\%} CI, 1.85-4.29), but the risk was significantly attenuated after additional adjustment for novel risk factors (men: OR, 2.11; 95{\%} CI, 1.21-3.70; women: OR, 1.98; 96{\%} CI, 1.26-3.11). CONCLUSION: Novel risk factors are associated with interindividual variation in ABI in African American and non-Hispanic white populations and partly account for the increased risk of PAD associated with African American ethnicity.",
author = "Khawaja, {Farhan J.} and Bailey, {Kent R} and Turner, {Stephen T} and Kardia, {Sharon L.} and Mosley, {Thomas H.} and Kullo, {Iftikhar Jan}",
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T1 - Association of novel risk factors with the ankle brachial index in African American and non-hispanic white populations

AU - Khawaja, Farhan J.

AU - Bailey, Kent R

AU - Turner, Stephen T

AU - Kardia, Sharon L.

AU - Mosley, Thomas H.

AU - Kullo, Iftikhar Jan

PY - 2007

Y1 - 2007

N2 - OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether novel risk factors, including C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], and homocysteine levels, are associated with the ankle brachial index (ABI) in African American and non-Hispanic white populations and whether novel risk factors account for ethnic differences in peripheral arterial disease (PAD). PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Between December 2000 and October 2004, original participants in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Artericpathy study returned for a second study visit to undergo measurement of risk factors and ABI. The CRP, Lp(a), and homocysteine levels were log transformed to reduce skewnees. Multivariable regression analyses were used to assess whether a novel risk factor was associated with ABI after adjustment for conventional risk factors and whether ethnicity was associated with PAD (ABI, ≤0.95) after adjustment for conventional and novel risk factors. RESULTS: Of 2229 study participants, the ABI was determined in 1395 African American participants (mean ± SD age, 63±9 years; 71% women) and 834 white participants (mean ± SD age, 58±9 years; 62% women) whc belonged to hypertensive sibships. The mean ABI was lower in African American than in white individuals (0.99±0.1 vs 1.13±0.1; P<.001). In both ethnic groups, higher levels of CRP, fibrinogen, and homocysteine were each associated with a lower ABI after adjustment for conventional risk factors. In African American participants, the Lp(a) level was also significantly associated with the ABI. African American ethnicity was associated with the presence of PAD after adjustment for conventional risk factors (men: odds ratio [OR], 3.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.80-5.15; woman: OR, 2.82; 95% CI, 1.85-4.29), but the risk was significantly attenuated after additional adjustment for novel risk factors (men: OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.21-3.70; women: OR, 1.98; 96% CI, 1.26-3.11). CONCLUSION: Novel risk factors are associated with interindividual variation in ABI in African American and non-Hispanic white populations and partly account for the increased risk of PAD associated with African American ethnicity.

AB - OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether novel risk factors, including C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], and homocysteine levels, are associated with the ankle brachial index (ABI) in African American and non-Hispanic white populations and whether novel risk factors account for ethnic differences in peripheral arterial disease (PAD). PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Between December 2000 and October 2004, original participants in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Artericpathy study returned for a second study visit to undergo measurement of risk factors and ABI. The CRP, Lp(a), and homocysteine levels were log transformed to reduce skewnees. Multivariable regression analyses were used to assess whether a novel risk factor was associated with ABI after adjustment for conventional risk factors and whether ethnicity was associated with PAD (ABI, ≤0.95) after adjustment for conventional and novel risk factors. RESULTS: Of 2229 study participants, the ABI was determined in 1395 African American participants (mean ± SD age, 63±9 years; 71% women) and 834 white participants (mean ± SD age, 58±9 years; 62% women) whc belonged to hypertensive sibships. The mean ABI was lower in African American than in white individuals (0.99±0.1 vs 1.13±0.1; P<.001). In both ethnic groups, higher levels of CRP, fibrinogen, and homocysteine were each associated with a lower ABI after adjustment for conventional risk factors. In African American participants, the Lp(a) level was also significantly associated with the ABI. African American ethnicity was associated with the presence of PAD after adjustment for conventional risk factors (men: odds ratio [OR], 3.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.80-5.15; woman: OR, 2.82; 95% CI, 1.85-4.29), but the risk was significantly attenuated after additional adjustment for novel risk factors (men: OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.21-3.70; women: OR, 1.98; 96% CI, 1.26-3.11). CONCLUSION: Novel risk factors are associated with interindividual variation in ABI in African American and non-Hispanic white populations and partly account for the increased risk of PAD associated with African American ethnicity.

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