We analyzed promoter methylation of RASSF1A, CTNNB1, CDH1, LAMB3, LAMC2, RUNX3, NORE1A, and CAV1 using methylation-specific PCR in 33 cases of small bowel carcinoid with both matched primary and metastatic tumors. The methylation status of RASSF1A and CTNNB1 were also determined in six primary appendiceal carcinoid tumors. Two neuroendocrine cell lines, NCI-H727 and HTB-119, were analyzed for promoter methylation. Immunohistochemical analyses for RASSF1A and beta-catenin were performed in 28 matched primary and metastatic tumors. Western blot analysis for RASSF1A and beta-catenin was also performed. Normal enterochromaffin cells were unmethylated in all eight genes examined. RASSF1A and CTNNB1 were unmethylated in appendiceal carcinoids. Methylation of RASSF1A and CTNNB1 promoters was more frequent in metastatic compared to primary tumors (p = 0.013 and 0.004, respectively). The NCI-H727 and HTB-119 cells lines were methylated in the RASSF1A promoter region, and after treatment with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-AZA), RASSF1A mRNA was expressed in both cell lines. Western blot results for RASSF1A and beta-catenin supported the methylation- specific PCR findings. The other six genes did not show significant differences. These results suggest that increased methylation of RASSF1A and CTNNB1 may play important roles in progression and metastasis of small bowel carcinoid tumors.
- Carcinoid tumor
- DNA methylation
- Gene expression
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism