Association Between the Acidemia, Lactic Acidosis, and Shock Severity With Outcomes in Patients With Cardiogenic Shock

Jacob C. Jentzer, Benedikt Schrage, Parag Patel, Kianoush B. Kashani, Gregory W. Barsness, David R. Holmes, Stefan Blankenberg, Paulus Kirchhof, Dirk Westermann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Lactic acidosis is associated with mortality in patients with cardiogenic shock (CS). Elevated lactate levels and systemic acidemia (low blood pH) have both been proposed as drivers of death. We, therefore, analyzed the association of both high lactate concentrations and low blood pH with 30-day mortality in patients with CS. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a 2-center historical cohort study of unselected patients with CS with available data for admission lactate level or blood pH. CS severity was graded using the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Intervention (SCAI) shock classification. All-cause survival at 30 days was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportionalhazards analysis. There were 1814 patients with CS (mean age, 67.3 years; 68.5% men); 51.8% had myocardial infarction and 53.0% had cardiac arrest. The distribution of SCAI shock stages was B, 10.8%; C, 30.7%; D, 38.1%; and E, 18.7%. In both cohorts, higher lactate or lower pH predicted a higher risk of adjusted 30-day mortality. Patients with a lactate ≥5 mmol/L or pH <7.2 were at increased risk of adjusted 30-day mortality; patients with both lactate ≥5 mmol/L and pH <7.2 had the highest risk of adjusted 30-day mortality. Patients in SCAI shock stages C, D, and E had higher 30-day mortality in each SCAI shock stage if they had lactate ≥5 mmol/L or pH <7.2, particularly if they met both criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Higher lactate and lower pH predict mortality in patients with cardiogenic shock beyond standard measures of shock severity. Severe lactic acidosis may serve as a risk modifier for the SCAI shock classification. Definitions of refractory or hemometabolic shock should include high lactate levels and low blood pH.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere024932
JournalJournal of the American Heart Association
Volume11
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - May 3 2022

Keywords

  • acidemia
  • acidosis
  • cardiogenic shock
  • lactic acidosis
  • shock

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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