Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NPs) play a fundamental role in maintaining cardiovascular (CV) and renal homeostasis. Moreover, they also affect glucose and lipid metabolism. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies investigating the association of NPs with serum lipid profile. A PubMed and Scopus search (2005–2018) revealed 48 studies reporting the association between NPs and components of lipid profile [total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) and triglycerides (TG)]. Despite high inconsistency across studies, NPs levels were inversely associated with TC [k = 32; pooled r = −0.09; I2 = 90.26%], LDLc [k = 31; pooled r = −0.09; I2 = 82.38%] and TG [k = 46; pooled r = −0.11; I2 = 94.14%], while they were directly associated with HDLc [k = 41; pooled r = 0.06; I2 = 87.94%]. The relationship with LDLc, HDLc and TG lost significance if only studies on special populations (works including subjects with relevant acute or chronic conditions that could have significantly affected the circulating levels of NPs or lipid profile) or low-quality studies were taken into account. The present study highlights an association between higher NP levels and a favorable lipid profile. This confirms and extends our understanding of the metabolic properties of cardiac NPs and their potential in CV prevention.
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