Background: Nutrient-mediated release of cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) regulates gastric emptying (GE) via duodenogastric feedback mechanisms; GLP-1 also regulates postprandial insulin secretion. Some patients with functional upper gastrointestinal symptoms have impaired glucose tolerance during enteral dextrose infusion. Our hypothesis was that variants in CCK, GLP-1, and TCF7L2 (transcription factor 7-like 2 locus), which is associated with greatest genetic risk for development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, are associated with GE and independently with glucose tolerance. Our aims were to evaluate the associations between these GE, glucose tolerance, and these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Methods: Genetic variants, scintigraphic GE of solids, plasma glucose, insulin, and GLP-1 during enteral dextrose infusion (75gm over 2 hours) were measured. GE and enteral dextrose infusion were, respectively, evaluated in 44 (27 controls and 17 patients with functional dyspepsia or nausea) and 42 (28 controls, 14 patients) participants; of these, 51 participants consented to assessment of SNPs. Four functional SNPs were studied: rs6923761 and rs1042044 at GLP-1 receptor, rs7903146 (TCF7L2), and rs1800857 (CCK receptor). Key Results: Gastric emptying was normal in 38, rapid in 4, and delayed in two participants; 38 had normal, and four had impaired glucose tolerance. The T allele at rs7903146 (TCF7L2) was non-significantly associated (P =.14) with faster GE. The associations between SNPs and demographic variables, GE thalf, glucose tolerance and plasma GLP1 levels were not significant. Conclusions & Inferences: There is a trend toward an association between faster GE and the diabetes-associated allele at rs7903146 in TCF7L2. However, these SNPs were not associated with plasma glucose or GLP1 concentrations during enteral dextrose infusion.
- functional dyspepsia
- glucose tolerance
- insulin secretion
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrine and Autonomic Systems