Assessment and Implications of Right Ventricular Afterload in Tetralogy of Fallot

Alexander C. Egbe, Nathaniel W. Taggart, Yogesh N.V. Reddy, Mahir Sufian, Keerthana Banala, Rahul Vojjini, Maria Najam, Karim Osman, Masaru Obokata, Barry A. Borlaug

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Abstract

Patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) have abnormal right ventricular (RV) afterload because of residual or recurrent outflow tract obstruction, often with abnormal pulmonary artery (PA) vascular function. The purpose of this study was to determine if RV afterload was independently associated with death and/or heart transplant in patients with TOF. This is a retrospective study of TOF patients that underwent cardiac catheterization for clinical indications at Mayo clinic between 1990 and 2015. Invasively measured RV systolic pressure (RVSP) was used to define RV afterload. To explore clinical utility for echocardiographic estimates of invasive data, correlations between invasive and Doppler-derived indices of RV afterload were examined. Among 266 patients with TOF (age 35 ± 14 years, TOF-pulmonary atresia 117 [44%]), RVSP was 72 ± 28 mm Hg, PA systolic pressure 45 ± 19 mm Hg, mean PA pressure 27 ± 10 mm Hg, pulmonary vascular resistance 4.2 ± 3.1 WU, and PA wedge pressure 14 ± 5 mm Hg. Over a mean follow up of 12.9 years, there were 35 deaths and 4 heart transplants. Invasively measured RVSP (hazard ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.12 to 1.37; p <0.001) and TOF-pulmonary atresia (hazard ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.41; p = 0.023) were independent risk factors for death and/or transplant. Doppler-derived RVSP was well-correlated with invasive RVSP (r = 0.92, p <0.001), and was also independently associated with the combined end point. RVSP, a composite measure of RV afterload, is independently prognostic in patients with TOF, and can be reliably assessed using Doppler echocardiography. Further study is required to test whether interventions to reduce RVSP can improve outcomes in patients with TOF.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Cardiology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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Egbe, A. C., Taggart, N. W., Reddy, Y. N. V., Sufian, M., Banala, K., Vojjini, R., Najam, M., Osman, K., Obokata, M., & Borlaug, B. A. (Accepted/In press). Assessment and Implications of Right Ventricular Afterload in Tetralogy of Fallot. American Journal of Cardiology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2019.08.035