Arteriovenous Malformations: Treatment and Management

Rudy J. Rahme, Rohin Singh, Nicole De La Pena, Evelyn L. Turcotte, Bernard R. Bendok

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are complex vascular lesions characterized by abnormal connections between arteries and veins forming a tangle of vessels, without an intervening capillary bed. The lack of resistance arterioles in AVMs allows for high-velocity shunting across the nidus and can lead to rupture and subsequent hemorrhage, which is the most common manifestation of an AVM. These lesions can remain asymptomatic until a precipitating event such as seizure or hemorrhage occurs, making epidemiological estimates difficult. However, the reported incidence of symptomatic AVMs is around 1 per 100, 000 person/years with a prevalence of 0.018% in the adult population and 0.02% in the pediatric population. AVMs carry an annual rupture risk between 2% and 4% across all age groups, though associated high-risk features can significantly increase this risk. Each lesion is unique and must be evaluated based on its own specific characteristics. Due to their complexity, AVMs often require a multimodal treatment approach with various combinations of endovascular, microsurgical, and radiosurgical techniques in order to safely achieve a cure. It is therefore essential to understand the various indications, limitations, and key principles for each treatment modality which are summarized in this chapter.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationIntroduction to Vascular Neurosurgery
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages22
ISBN (Electronic)9783030881962
ISBN (Print)9783030881955
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022


  • Arteriovenous malformation
  • AVM
  • Hemorrhage
  • Vascular malformation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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