Background: Archeological archives report cranioplasty as 1 of the oldest surgical procedures; however, it was not until the last century that true advances have been made. Alternative approaches are necessary to achieve optimal closure of the defect with fewer adverse effects. We aim to evaluate the use of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) alone or seeded in scaffolds as the main treatment for cranial bone defects and to assess human patient outcomes. Methods: A systematic review was performed by querying PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases with the MeSH terms: adipose-derived stem cells, cranial bone defect, stromal vascular factor, fat grafting, as well as synonyms in combinations determined by our search strategy. We included human models that used hADSCs as primary therapy. We excluded studies in languages other than English. Results: One hundred ninety-four studies were identified after removal of duplicates. Four articles that used hADSCs as the main therapy to treat calvarial defects in humans were included. One article applied the cell therapy alone, and 3 used b-Tricalcium phosphate granules as a scaffold to seed the hADSCs. Conclusions: Bone regeneration was reached in a short and intermediate period using autologous hADSCs in humans with no major adverse effects in all 4 articles included. A long-Term follow-up study (6 years) exhibited late infections and reabsorption of the b-Tricalcium phosphate scaffold seeded with hADSCs.
- Biocompatible materials
- Reconstructive surgical procedures
- Tissue engineering
- Tissue scaffolds
ASJC Scopus subject areas