Objective: To compare the clinical efficacy and safety of apixaban with those of rivaroxaban for the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism (VTE). Patients and Methods: Consecutive patients enrolled in the Mayo Thrombophilia Clinic Registry (between March 1, 2013, and January 30, 2018) and treated with apixaban or rivaroxaban for acute VTE were followed forward in time. The primary efficacy outcome was VTE recurrence. The primary safety outcome was major bleeding; the second safety outcome was clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding (CRNMB); and the third was a composite of major bleeding or CRNMB. Results: Within the group of 1696 patients with VTE enrolled, 600 (38%) were treated either with apixaban (n=302, 50%) or rivaroxaban (n=298, 50%) within the first 14 days of VTE diagnosis and who completed at least 3 months of therapy or had a study event. Recurrent VTE was diagnosed in 7 patients (2.3%) treated with apixaban and in 6 (2%) treated with rivaroxaban (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.4; 95% CI, 0.5-3.8). Major bleeding occurred in 11 patients (3.6%) receiving apixaban and in 9 patients (3.0%) receiving rivaroxaban (aHR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.5-3.2). Clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding was diagnosed in 7 patients (2.3%) receiving apixaban and in 20 (6.7%) receiving rivaroxaban (aHR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.9). The rates of composite major bleeding or CRNMB were similar (aHR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.3-1.2). Most study events occurred in patients with cancer. Conclusion: In the setting of a standardized, guideline-directed, patient-oriented clinical practice, the efficacy and safety of apixaban and rivaroxaban for the treatment of acute VTE were comparable.
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