Background: For moderately emetogenic chemotherapy, palonosetron (PALO) is reported to provide complete control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in 69% of patients. Prior to August 2009, our gastrointestinal (GI) cancer patients receiving the moderately emetogenic compounds oxaliplatin or irinotecan plus a fluoropyrimidine regimen received ondansetron and dexamethasone orally on day 1 of chemotherapy for CINV prevention. Beginning in August of 2009, ondansetron was replaced by PALO 0.25 mg (intravenous push). Methods: This is a single-institution retrospective study of GI cancer patients who received oxaliplatin or irinotecan plus a fluoropyrimidine. Failure of an antiemetic regimen was defined as grade ≥1 vomiting or grade ≥2 nausea (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3) on days 1 through 5 following chemotherapy. Patients were divided for analysis into pre-PALO and post-PALO cohorts. Fisher's exact test compared cohort differences. Results: A total of 305 patients were included in the study, with 157 patients in the pre-PALO cohort and 148 in the post-PALO cohort. For all patients, the risk of antiemetic failure was reduced from 50.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 42.2-58.4%] to 28.4% (95% CI 21.3-36.4%) with PALO. This reduction in the relative risk of antiemetic failure was observed in all subgroups. Conclusion: The addition of PALO may provide increased control of CINV for the moderately emetogenic regimens of oxaliplatin or irinotecan plus a fluoropyrimidine in GI cancer patients.
- Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting
- Fluoropyrimidine regimen
- Gastrointestinal cancer
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research