Annual Clinical Updates in Hematological Malignancies: A Continuing Medical Education Series: Polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia: 2011 update on diagnosis, risk-stratification, and management

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28 Scopus citations

Abstract

Disease overview: Polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) are myeloproliferative neoplasms primarily characterized by erythrocytosis and thrombocytosis, respectively. Other disease features include leukocytosis, splenomegaly, thrombohemorrhagic complications, vasomotor disturbances, pruritus, and a small risk of disease progression into acute leukemia or myelofibrosis. Diagnosis: Diagnosis is based on JAK2 mutation status (PV and ET), serum erythropoietin (Epo) level (PV), and bone marrow histopathology (ET). The presence of a JAK2 mutation and subnormal serum Epo level confirm a diagnosis of PV. Differential diagnosis in ET should include chronic myelogenous leukemia and prefibrotic myelofibrosis. Risk stratification: Current risk stratification in PV and ET is designed to estimate the likelihood of thrombotic complications: high-risk-age >60 years or presence of thrombosis history; low-risk-absence of both of these two risk factors. Presence of extreme thrombocytosis (platelet count >1,000 × 109/L) might be associated with acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AvWS) and, therefore, risk of bleeding. Risk factors for shortened survival in both PV and ET include age >60 years, leukocytosis, history of thrombosis, and anemia. Risk-adapted therapy: Survival is near-normal in ET and reasonably long in PV. The 10-year risk of leukemic/fibrotic transformation is <1%/1% in ET and <5%/10% in PV. In contrast, the risk of thrombosis exceeds 20%. The main goal of therapy is therefore to prevent thrombohemorrhagic complications and this is effectively and safely accomplished by the use of low-dose aspirin (PV and ET), phlebotomy (PV), and hydroxyurea (high risk PV and ET). Treatment with busulfan or interferon-α is usually effective in hydroxyurea failures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)292-301
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican journal of hematology
Volume86
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology

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