Background Both epicardial and myocardial perfusion have been associated with clinical outcomes in the setting of ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), and the performance of adjunctive/rescue percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) may further improve clinical outcomes after fibrinolytic administration. Methods The goal was to develop a simple, broadly applicable angiographic metric that takes into account indices of epicardial and myocardial perfusion both before and after PCI to arrive at a single perfusion grade in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization after fibrinolysis. The angiographic perfusion score (APS) is the sum of the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow grade (TFG; 0-3) added to the TIMI myocardial perfusion grade (TMPG; 0-3) before and after PCI (total possible grade, 0-12). Failed perfusion was defined as an APS of 0 to 3, partial perfusion was defined as an APS of 4 to 9, and full perfusion was defined as an APS of 10 to 12. The APS was evaluated in patients from the Double-blind, Placebo-contolled, Multicenter Angiographic Trial of Rhumab CD18 in Acute Myocardial Infarction (LIMIT-AMI; n = 394) and Enoxaparin as Adjunctive Antithrombin Therapy for ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (ENTIRE-TIMI) 23 trials (n = 483), and infarct size (120-216 hours after AMI SPECT Technetium-99m Sestamibi data) was assessed in the LIMIT-AMI trial. Results The APS was associated with the incidence of death or myocardial infarction (failed, 16.7% [n = 18]; partial, 2.5% [n = 155]; full, 2.4% [n = 82]; P = .039 for trend) and larger SPECT infarct sizes (failed, median 39% [n = 10]; partial, 12% [n = 79]; and full, 8% [n = 35]; P = .002). No patient with full APS died, whereas the mortality rate was 11.1% in patients with a failed APS (P = .03). Conclusions The APS combines grades of epicardial and tissue level perfusion before and after PCI or at the end of diagnostic cardiac catheterization to arrive at a single angiographic variable that is associated with infarct size and the rates of 30-day death or MI. Partial or full angiographic perfusion scores are associated with a halving of infarct size, and no patients with full angiographic perfusion died.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine