Regulatory control of the androgen receptor has been studied most extensively in prostatic tissue. Additional information has been obtained from the study of androgen receptors in pituitary and hypothalamic tissues, and these results can be extrapolated to regulatory mechanisms in both prostate and skeletal muscle. The present work provides a brief summary of studies on androgen action on muscle, gives an overview of mechanisms of androgen action on target tissues, and focuses on several aspects of regulation of androgen receptor (AR) gene expression. These include some characteristics of AR gene transcription start sites; the role of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate, protein kinase C, and protein kinase A pathways in mediating androgen receptor function; and tissue-variable regulatory elements inhibiting AR gene expression.
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