Analysis of Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variation During Cardiac CT Examinations

Jie Zhang, Joel Garland Fletcher, W. Scott Harmsen, Philip A Araoz, Eric E. Williamson, Andrew N. Primak, Cynthia H McCollough

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Rationale and Objectives: We sought to examine heart rate and heart rate variability during cardiac computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods: Ninety patients (59.0 ± 13.5 years) underwent coronary CT angiography (CTA), with 52 patients also undergoing coronary artery calcium scanning (CAC). Forty-two patients with heart rate greater than 70 bpm were pretreated with oral β-blockers (in five patients, use of β-blocker was not known). Sixty-four patients were given sublingual nitroglycerin. Mean heart rate and percentage of beats outside a ±5 bpm region about the mean were compared between baseline (free breathing), prescan hyperventilation, and scan acquisition (breath-hold). Results: Mean scan acquisition time was 13.1 ± 1.5 seconds for CAC scanning and 14.2 ± 2.9 seconds for coronary CTA. Mean heart rate during scan acquisition was significantly lower than at baseline (CAC 58.2 ± 8.5 bpm; CTA 59.2 ± 8.8 bpm; baseline 62.8 ± 8.9 bpm; P < .001). The percentage of beats outside a ±5 bpm about the mean were not different between baseline and CTA scanning (3.5% versus 3.3%, P = .87). The injection of contrast had no significant effect on heart rate (58.2 bpm versus 59.2 bpm, P = .24) or percentage of beats outside a ±5 bpm about the mean (3.0% versus 3.3%, P = .64). No significant difference was found between gender and age groups (P > .05). Conclusions: Breath-holding during cardiac CT scan acquisition significantly lowers the mean heart rate by approximately 4 bpm, but heart rate variability is the same or less compared with normal breathing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)40-48
Number of pages9
JournalAcademic Radiology
Volume15
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2008

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Heart Rate
Tomography
Coronary Vessels
Calcium
Respiration
Breath Holding
Hyperventilation
Nitroglycerin
Coronary Angiography
Computed Tomography Angiography

Keywords

  • computed tomography
  • coronary angiography.
  • Heart rate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Cite this

Analysis of Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variation During Cardiac CT Examinations. / Zhang, Jie; Fletcher, Joel Garland; Scott Harmsen, W.; Araoz, Philip A; Williamson, Eric E.; Primak, Andrew N.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

In: Academic Radiology, Vol. 15, No. 1, 01.2008, p. 40-48.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zhang, Jie ; Fletcher, Joel Garland ; Scott Harmsen, W. ; Araoz, Philip A ; Williamson, Eric E. ; Primak, Andrew N. ; McCollough, Cynthia H. / Analysis of Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variation During Cardiac CT Examinations. In: Academic Radiology. 2008 ; Vol. 15, No. 1. pp. 40-48.
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abstract = "Rationale and Objectives: We sought to examine heart rate and heart rate variability during cardiac computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods: Ninety patients (59.0 ± 13.5 years) underwent coronary CT angiography (CTA), with 52 patients also undergoing coronary artery calcium scanning (CAC). Forty-two patients with heart rate greater than 70 bpm were pretreated with oral β-blockers (in five patients, use of β-blocker was not known). Sixty-four patients were given sublingual nitroglycerin. Mean heart rate and percentage of beats outside a ±5 bpm region about the mean were compared between baseline (free breathing), prescan hyperventilation, and scan acquisition (breath-hold). Results: Mean scan acquisition time was 13.1 ± 1.5 seconds for CAC scanning and 14.2 ± 2.9 seconds for coronary CTA. Mean heart rate during scan acquisition was significantly lower than at baseline (CAC 58.2 ± 8.5 bpm; CTA 59.2 ± 8.8 bpm; baseline 62.8 ± 8.9 bpm; P < .001). The percentage of beats outside a ±5 bpm about the mean were not different between baseline and CTA scanning (3.5{\%} versus 3.3{\%}, P = .87). The injection of contrast had no significant effect on heart rate (58.2 bpm versus 59.2 bpm, P = .24) or percentage of beats outside a ±5 bpm about the mean (3.0{\%} versus 3.3{\%}, P = .64). No significant difference was found between gender and age groups (P > .05). Conclusions: Breath-holding during cardiac CT scan acquisition significantly lowers the mean heart rate by approximately 4 bpm, but heart rate variability is the same or less compared with normal breathing.",
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AB - Rationale and Objectives: We sought to examine heart rate and heart rate variability during cardiac computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods: Ninety patients (59.0 ± 13.5 years) underwent coronary CT angiography (CTA), with 52 patients also undergoing coronary artery calcium scanning (CAC). Forty-two patients with heart rate greater than 70 bpm were pretreated with oral β-blockers (in five patients, use of β-blocker was not known). Sixty-four patients were given sublingual nitroglycerin. Mean heart rate and percentage of beats outside a ±5 bpm region about the mean were compared between baseline (free breathing), prescan hyperventilation, and scan acquisition (breath-hold). Results: Mean scan acquisition time was 13.1 ± 1.5 seconds for CAC scanning and 14.2 ± 2.9 seconds for coronary CTA. Mean heart rate during scan acquisition was significantly lower than at baseline (CAC 58.2 ± 8.5 bpm; CTA 59.2 ± 8.8 bpm; baseline 62.8 ± 8.9 bpm; P < .001). The percentage of beats outside a ±5 bpm about the mean were not different between baseline and CTA scanning (3.5% versus 3.3%, P = .87). The injection of contrast had no significant effect on heart rate (58.2 bpm versus 59.2 bpm, P = .24) or percentage of beats outside a ±5 bpm about the mean (3.0% versus 3.3%, P = .64). No significant difference was found between gender and age groups (P > .05). Conclusions: Breath-holding during cardiac CT scan acquisition significantly lowers the mean heart rate by approximately 4 bpm, but heart rate variability is the same or less compared with normal breathing.

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