An ex vivo readout for evaluation of dendritic cell-induced autologous cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against esophageal cancer

Francesca Milano, Agnieszka M. Rygiel, Navtej Buttar, Jacques J.G.H.M. Bergman, Carine Sondermeijer, Jantine W.P.M. Van Baal, Anja Ten Brinke, Martien Kapsenberg, S. Marieke Van Ham, Maikel P. Peppelenbosch, Kausilia K. Krishnadath

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Scopus citations


Esophageal cancer is a highly malignant disease that despite surgery and adjuvant therapies has an extremely poor outcome. Dendritic cell (DC) immunotherapy as a novel promising strategy could be an alternative for treating this malignancy. Effective DC-mediated immune responses can be achieved by raising cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against multiple antigens through loading DCs with total tumor RNA. However, the efficacy of this strategy first needs to be evaluated in a pre-clinical setting. The aim of the study was to set up an ex vivo autologous human readout assay for assessing the effects of DC-mediated cytotoxic responses, using total tumor RNA as an antigen load. Biopsy specimens of seven esophageal cancer patients were used to establish primary cultures of normal and cancer cells and to obtain autologous RNA for loading DCs. Mature DCs loaded with either normal or tumor RNA were obtained and subsequently used to raise various lymphocytes populations. Apoptosis levels of the autologous cultures were measured before and after incubating the cultures with the different lymphocytes populations. The mean apoptosis levels in the tumor cell cultures, induced by lymphocytes instructed by DCs loaded with tumor RNA, significantly increased with 15.6% ±2.9 SEM (range 3.4-24.5%, t-test, P < 0.05). Incubation of the normal cultures with the lymphocytes populations showed a mean non-significant increase in apoptosis of 0.4% ±3.4 SEM (range -13.9 to 9.8%, t-test, P = 0.7). Here, we introduce a practical, patient-specific autologous readout assay for pre-clinical testing of DC-mediated cytotoxic responses. Additionally, we demonstrated that the use of autologous tumor RNA as a strategy for raising cytotoxic responses against multiple tumor antigens could be effective for treating esophageal cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1967-1977
Number of pages11
JournalCancer Immunology, Immunotherapy
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2007



  • Apoptosis
  • Cytotoxic T-cells
  • Dendritic cells
  • Esophageal adenocarcinoma
  • Immunotherapy
  • RNA electroporation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Milano, F., Rygiel, A. M., Buttar, N., Bergman, J. J. G. H. M., Sondermeijer, C., Van Baal, J. W. P. M., Ten Brinke, A., Kapsenberg, M., Van Ham, S. M., Peppelenbosch, M. P., & Krishnadath, K. K. (2007). An ex vivo readout for evaluation of dendritic cell-induced autologous cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against esophageal cancer. Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy, 56(12), 1967-1977.