AL amyloidosis is a rare disease in which immunoglobulin light chains are deposited as aggregated interstitial fibrils that can compromise organ function and lead to death. The risks that patients with amyloidosis face include late diagnosis, misdiagnosis of amyloid type, untimely and ineffective therapy, and toxicities of therapy. The goals of treatment are (1) reduction or elimination of the amyloid-forming protein, usually a free immunoglobulin light chain measured by the serum-free light chain assay; (2) support of the patient pending hematologic response and improvement; and (3) stabilization of organ function. Whenever possible, patients should be treated on clinical trials.
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