Purpose: The Amplatzer Vascular Plug (AVP; AGA Medical, Golden Valley, MN) is a recently developed self-expanding metallic device indicated for peripheral vascular embolizations. Herein, we describe use of this device in the treatment of vascular complications related to arteriovenous hemodialysis fistulas and grafts. Materials and methods: This HIPAA compliant retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board with informed consent waived. Six patients with problematic arteriovenous access underwent access occlusion using the AVP. Procedure indications included vascular steal syndrome in five patients, and enlarging vascular aneurysms in one patient. Contraindications for surgical correction were determined by the referring surgeon. AVP embolizations were performed using devices oversized by 50% introduced through vascular sheaths positioned within vein segments just beyond the arteriovenous anastomoses. Noninvasive evaluation of the involved extremity was performed pre- and post-embolization in addition to clinical follow-up examinations. Measured outcomes included success of angiographic occlusion, improvement in distal arterial flow, AVP number, AVP diameter, time to access occlusion, and clinical symptomatic improvement. Results: Technical success was 100%, with complete arteriovenous access occlusion accomplished in all cases, with an average of 1.5 AVPs used per patient. Mean time to access occlusion was 19.3 minutes. Angiographic improvement in distal arterial flow was immediately evident and resolution of clinical symptoms occurred in all patients, with mean long-term follow-up of 16 months. No procedure-related complications were encountered. Conclusion: The Amplatzer Vascular Plug provides a minimally invasive and efficacious method for embolization of problematic arteriovenous hemodialysis access.
- Amplatzer Vascular Plug (AVP)
- Arteriovenous fistulas and grafts (AVFs and AVGs)
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