Background: Cognitive function is essential to effective self-management of heart failure (HF). Alzheimer's disease and Alzheimer's disease-related dementias (AD/ADRD) can coexist with HF, but its exact prevalence and impact on health care utilization and death are not well defined. Methods: Residents from 7 southeast Minnesota counties with a first-ever diagnosis code for HF between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2018 were identified. Clinically diagnosed AD/ADRD was ascertained using the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) Chronic Conditions Data Warehouse algorithm. Patients were followed through March 31, 2020. Cox and Andersen-Gill models were used to examine associations between AD/ADRD (before and after HF) and death and hospitalizations, respectively. Results: Among 6336 patients with HF (mean age [SD] 75 years , 48% female), 644 (10%) carried a diagnosis of AD/ADRD at index HF diagnosis. The 3-year cumulative incidence of AD/ADRD after HF diagnosis was 17%. During follow-up (mean [SD] 3.2 [1.9] years), 2618 deaths and 15,475 hospitalizations occurred. After adjustment, patients with AD/ADRD before HF had nearly a 2.7 times increased risk of death, but no increased risk of hospitalization compared to those without AD/ADRD. When AD/ADRD was diagnosed after the index HF date, patients experienced a 3.7 times increased risk of death and a 73% increased risk of hospitalization compared to those who remain free of AD/ADRD. Conclusions: In a large, community cohort of patients with incident HF, the burden of AD/ADRD is quite high as more than one-fourth of patients with HF received a diagnosis of AD/ADRD either before or after HF diagnosis. AD/ADRD markedly increases the risk of adverse outcomes in HF underscoring the need for future studies focused on holistic approaches to improve outcomes.
- Alzheimer's disease and Alzheimer's disease-related dementias
- health care utilization
- heart failure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geriatrics and Gerontology