Dominant, constitutively expressed antiretroviral factors, including TRIM5α and APOBEC3 proteins, are distinguished from the conventional innate immune systems and are classified as intrinsic immunity factors. Here, we demonstrate that interferon alpha (IFN-α) treatment upregulates TRIM5α mRNA in rhesus monkey cells, which correlates with the enhanced TRIM5α-mediated pre- and postintegration blocks of human immunodeficiency virus replication. In human cells, IFN-α increases the levels of TRIM5α mRNA, resulting in enhanced antiviral activity against N-tropic murine leukemia virus infection. These observations indicate that the TRIM5α-mediated antiviral effects can be orchestrated by the conventional innate immune response. It is conceivable that TRIM5α plays an essential role in controlling both the initial retroviral exposure and the subsequent viral dissemination in vivo.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science